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26. ožujka 1941

26. ožujka 1941


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Lella Lombardi

Maria Grazia "Lella" Lombardi (26. ožujka 1941. - 3. ožujka 1992.) bio je trkaći vozač iz Italije.

Lella Lombardi
Rođen (1941-03-26) 26. ožujka 1941
Frugarolo, Pijemont, Italija
Umro3. ožujka 1992. (1992-03-03) (50 godina)
Milano, Italija
Karijera Svjetskog prvenstva u Formuli 1
Nacionalnost talijanski
Aktivne godine1974–1976
TimoviOžujka, RAM, Williams
Unosi17 (12 početaka)
Prvenstva0
Pobjede0
Podiji0
Bodovi u karijeri0.5
Položaji polova0
Najbrži krugovi0
Prvi unosVelika nagrada Velike Britanije 1974
Zadnji unosVelika nagrada Austrije 1976. godine

Rođena u Frugarolu u Pijemontu, sudjelovala je na 17 nagrada za Svjetsko prvenstvo u Formuli 1, debitirajući 20. srpnja 1974., a karijeru je završila s pola boda. Ona je jedina žena vozačica Formule 1 u povijesti koja je završila među šest najboljih u utrci Svjetskog prvenstva, što je i učinila na Velikoj nagradi Španjolske 1975. [1] Ova je utrka dodijeljena pola boda zbog skraćene trkačke udaljenosti, stoga Lombardi je umjesto uobičajenog jednog boda dobio pola boda). Osim što je jedina vozačica koja je osvojila bodove u Formuli 1 (i jedina vozačica s karijerom od ukupno pola boda), jedna je od dvije koje su se plasirale u utrku Formule 1 (druga je sunarodnjakinja Maria Teresa de Filippis ). [2]


Ova scena, koju je nacrtao Clifford Berryman, prikazuje opću scenu vidljivu u tvornicama i pogonima diljem zemlje dok su radnici u to vrijeme bili u štrajkovima. Štrajkovi su imali za cilj dobiti veće plaće jer su se Sjedinjene Države nalazile u posljednjoj fazi oporavka od Velike depresije, iako je stopa nezaposlenosti u cijeloj zemlji i dalje iznosila 15 posto. Štrajkači na ilustraciji drže natpise na kojima je pisalo: "Ovo mjesto zatvoreno štrajkom!" i "Ne prelazite liniju probijanja."

  • Od čega bi štrajkači "branili" zemlju?
  • Kako je Clifford Berryman okarakterizirao napadače na ovoj slici? Naslov ovog političkog crtića je "Naša nova vojska nacionalne obrane". Kako naslov podržava ovu karakterizaciju?
  • Zašto bi radnici štrajkali u vrijeme velike nezaposlenosti?

Pomorsko ratovanje dobiva novo oružje

Italija napada britansku flotu u uvali Souda na Kreti, koristeći odvojive bojeve glave kako bi potopila britansku krstaricu. Ovo je bio prvi put da su torpeda s ljudskom posadom upotrijebljena u pomorskom ratu, dodajući novo oružje svjetskim arsenalima##x2019 mornarice i#x2019.

Torpedo s ljudskom posadom, poznat i kao 𠇌hariot, ” bio je jedinstven. Primarno korišteni za napad na neprijateljske brodove koji su još u luci, kočije su im trebale “pilote ” da ih 𠇍rive ” dovedu do svojih ciljeva. Sjedeći na torpedu na vozilu koje bi ih oboje prevezlo, pilot bi vodio projektil što je moguće bliže cilju, a zatim vozio vozilo natrag, obično do podmornice. Kočija je prije svog razvoja bila ogromna prednost, najbliže oružje kočiji bili su Japanci Kaiten– ljudsko torpedo ili bomba samoubojica, koja je imala očitih nedostataka.

Prvu uspješnu upotrebu kočije koristila je talijanska mornarica, iako su svoju verziju nazivali kao Maiali, ili “Pigs. ” 26. ožujka šest talijanskih motornih čamaca, kojima je zapovijedao talijanski pomorski zapovjednik poručnik Luigi Faggioni, ušlo je u zaljev Souda na Kreti i posadili svoje Maiali uz britanski konvoj u tamošnjoj luci. Krstarica York bio je toliko ozbiljno oštećen eksplozijom da se morao plaži.

Torpedo s ljudskom posadom pokazalo se kao najučinkovitije oružje u talijanskom mornaričkom arsenalu, ponovno uspješno korišteno protiv Britanaca u prosincu 1941. u Aleksandriji u Egiptu. Talijanska torpeda potopila su britanske bojne brodove kraljica Elizabeth i Hrabar, kao i jedan tanker. Također su korišteni protiv trgovačkih brodova na Gibraltaru i drugdje.


Sadržaj

Rani život Edit

Clinton Richard Dawkins rođen je u Nairobiju, tada glavnom gradu kolonije i protektorata Kenije, 26. ožujka 1941. [30] Dawkins je kasnije anketom poništio Clinton sa svog imena. [24] On je sin Jeana Mary Vyvyan (rođena Ladner 1916–2019) [31] [32] i Clinton John Dawkins (1915–2010), poljoprivredni državni službenik u britanskoj kolonijalnoj službi u Nyasalandu (današnji Malavi), iz vlastelinske obitelji iz Oxfordshira. [30] [33] [34] Njegov je otac pozvan u Kraljevu afričku pušku tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata [35] [36] i vratio se u Englesku 1949. godine, kad je Dawkins imao osam godina. Njegov je otac naslijedio seosko imanje Over Norton Park u Oxfordshireu koje je komercijalno uzgajao. [34] Dawkins živi u Oxfordu u Engleskoj. [37] Ima mlađu sestru, Sarah. [38]

Njegovi su se roditelji zanimali za prirodne znanosti i na Dawkinsova pitanja odgovarali su u znanstvenom smislu. [39] Dawkins opisuje svoje djetinjstvo kao "normalan anglikanski odgoj". [40] Prihvatio je kršćanstvo sve do polovice svojih tinejdžerskih godina, kada je zaključio da je samo teorija evolucije bolje objašnjenje složenosti života, te je prestao vjerovati u boga. [38] Dawkins navodi: "Glavni preostali razlog zašto sam bio religiozan bio je to što sam bio toliko impresioniran složenošću života i osjećajem da je morao imati dizajnera, i mislim da je to bilo kad sam shvatio da je darvinizam daleko superiornije objašnjenje to je izvuklo prostirku ispod argumenta dizajna. I to mi nije ostavilo ništa. " [38]

Obrazovanje Edit

Od 1954. do 1959. Dawkins je pohađao Oundle School u Northamptonshireu, englesku javnu školu s etosom crkve Engleske, [38] gdje je bio u Laundimer Houseu. [41] Dok je bio u Oundleu, Dawkins je čitao Bertranda Russella Zašto nisam kršćanin prvi put. [42] Studirao je zoologiju na Balliol Collegeu u Oxfordu, diplomirao 1962. dok je tamo boravio, a podučavao ga je etolog dobitnik Nobelove nagrade Nikolaas Tinbergen. Diplomirao je s odličjem druge klase. [43]

Nastavio je kao student istraživanja pod Tinbergenovim nadzorom, magistriravši i doktor filozofije [44] do 1966., te je ostao znanstveni asistent još godinu dana. [45] [46] Tinbergen je bio pionir u proučavanju ponašanja životinja, osobito u područjima instinkta, učenja i izbora [47] Dawkinsovo istraživanje u ovom razdoblju odnosilo se na modele donošenja životinjskih odluka. [48]

Podučavanje uređivanja

Od 1967. do 1969. Dawkins je bio docent zoologije na Kalifornijskom sveučilištu u Berkeleyju. Tijekom tog razdoblja, studenti i nastavnici na UC Berkeley uvelike su se protivili tekućem Vijetnamskom ratu, a Dawkins se uključio u antiratne demonstracije i aktivnosti. [49] Vratio se na Sveučilište Oxford 1970. kao predavač. Godine 1990. postao je čitatelj zoologije. Godine 1995. imenovan je Simonyijevim profesorom za javno razumijevanje znanosti na Oxfordu, što je poziciju koju je Charles Simonyi obdario izričitom namjerom da se od nositelja "očekuje da će dati važan doprinos javnom razumijevanju nekog znanstvenog područja", [50] i da bi njegov prvi nositelj trebao biti Richard Dawkins. [51] To je mjesto profesora obnašao od 1995. do 2008. [52]

Od 1970. bio je stipendist New Collegea u Oxfordu, a sada je emeritus. [53] [54] Održao je mnoga predavanja, uključujući Memorijalno predavanje Henryja Sidgwicka (1989.), prvo Memorijalno predavanje Erasmus Darwina (1990.), Predavanje Michaela Faradaya (1991.), Memorijalno predavanje TH Huxley (1992.), Memorijalno predavanje Irvine (1997.), Tinbergenovo predavanje (2004.) i Tannerova predavanja (2003.). [45] 1991. održao je Božićna predavanja za djecu na Kraljevskoj instituciji Odrastanje u svemiru. Uređivao je i nekoliko časopisa te je bio urednički savjetnik časopisa Encarta Enciklopedija i Enciklopedija evolucije. Naveden je kao viši urednik i kolumnist Vijeća za sekularni humanizam Besplatan upit časopis, a bio je i član uredništva časopisa Skeptik časopis od svog osnutka. [55]

Dawkins je sudjelovao u ocjenjivačkim povjerenstvima za raznolike nagrade poput Faradayjeve nagrade Kraljevskog društva i Televizijske nagrade Britanske akademije [45], a bio je i predsjednik odjela za biološke znanosti Britanske udruge za napredak znanosti. Godine 2004. Balliol College u Oxfordu ustanovio je nagradu Dawkins, koja se dodjeljuje za "izvanredna istraživanja ekologije i ponašanja životinja čija dobrobit i opstanak mogu biti ugrožene ljudskim aktivnostima". [56] U rujnu 2008. povukao se s profesora, najavivši planove da "napiše knjigu namijenjenu mladima u kojoj će ih upozoriti da ne vjeruju u 'anti-znanstvene' bajke". [57]

Godine 2011. Dawkins se pridružio profesorau New College of Humanities, privatnom sveučilištu u Londonu koje je osnovao A. C. Grayling, a koje je otvoreno u rujnu 2012. [58]

Evolucijska biologija Urediti

Dawkins je najpoznatiji po popularizaciji gena kao glavne jedinice odabira u evoluciji. Ovo gledište najjasnije je izloženo u njegovim knjigama: [59] [60]

  • Sebični gen (1976.), u kojem napominje da se "cijeli život razvija različitim preživljavanjem replicirajućih entiteta".
  • Prošireni fenotip (1982.), u kojem opisuje prirodnu selekciju kao "proces u kojem se replikatori međusobno šire". Šira publika upoznaje s utjecajnim konceptom koji je predstavio 1977. [61] da fenotipski učinci gena nisu nužno ograničeni na tijelo organizma, već se mogu protezati daleko u okoliš, uključujući i tijela drugih organizama. Dawkins je smatrao da je prošireni fenotip njegov najvažniji doprinos evolucijskoj biologiji, te je smatrao da je izgradnja niše poseban slučaj proširenog fenotipa. Koncept proširenog fenotipa pomaže objasniti evoluciju, ali ne pomaže u predviđanju konkretnih ishoda. [62]

Dawkins je dosljedno bio skeptičan prema neprilagodljivim procesima u evoluciji (kao što su spandreli, koje su opisali Gould i Lewontin) [63] i prema odabiru na razinama "iznad" one gena. [64] Posebno je skeptičan u pogledu praktične mogućnosti ili važnosti grupnog odabira kao temelja za razumijevanje altruizma. [65] Ovo ponašanje isprva se čini kao evolucijski paradoks, jer pomaganje drugima košta dragocjena sredstva i smanjuje vlastitu sposobnost. Ranije su to mnogi tumačili kao aspekt grupnog odabira: pojedinci čine ono što je najbolje za opstanak populacije ili vrste u cjelini. Britanski evolucijski biolog W. D. Hamilton upotrijebio je analizu frekvencije gena u svojoj inkluzivnoj teoriji kondicije kako bi pokazao kako se mogu razviti nasljedne altruističke osobine ako postoji dovoljna genetska sličnost između aktera i primatelja takvog altruizma (uključujući blisku rodbinu). [66] [a] Hamiltonova inkluzivna sposobnost od tada se uspješno primjenjuje na širokom rasponu organizama, uključujući ljude. Slično, Robert Trivers, razmišljajući u smislu modela usredotočenog na gene, razvio je teoriju recipročnog altruizma, prema kojoj jedan organizam pruža korist drugom u očekivanju buduće recipročnosti. [67] Dawkins je popularizirao ove ideje u Sebični gen, te ih razvio u vlastitom radu. [68] U lipnju 2012. Dawkins je bio vrlo kritičan prema knjizi kolege biologa E. O. Wilsona iz 2012. godine Društveno osvajanje Zemlje kao pogrešno razumijevanje Hamiltonove teorije odabira srodnika. [69] [70] Dawkins je također bio oštro kritičan prema Gaia hipotezi neovisnog znanstvenika Jamesa Lovelocka. [71] [72] [73]

Kritičari Dawkinsovog biološkog pristupa sugeriraju da uzimanje gena kao jedinice izbor (pojedinačni događaj u kojem pojedinac uspijeva ili se ne uspije razmnožiti) dovodi u zabludu. Gen bi se mogao bolje opisati, kažu, kao jedinica evolucija (dugoročne promjene učestalosti alela u populaciji). [74] U Sebični gen, Dawkins objašnjava da koristi definiciju gena Georgea C. Williamsa kao "onu koja se segregira i rekombinira sa značajnom učestalošću". [75] Drugi uobičajen prigovor je da gen ne može preživjeti sam, već mora surađivati ​​s drugim genima kako bi izgradio jedinku, pa stoga gen ne može biti neovisna "jedinica". [76] U Prošireni fenotip, Dawkins sugerira da su sa stajališta pojedinog gena svi ostali geni dio okruženja na koje je prilagođen.

Zagovornici viših razina odabira (kao što su Richard Lewontin, David Sloan Wilson i Elliott Sober) sugeriraju da postoje mnogi fenomeni (uključujući altruizam) koje odabir temeljen na genima ne može na zadovoljavajući način objasniti. Filozofkinja Mary Midgley, s kojom se Dawkins sukobio u tisku Sebični gen, [77] [78] kritizirala je odabir gena, memetiku i sociobiologiju kao pretjerano redukcionističku [79], sugerirajući da je popularnost Dawkinsovog djela posljedica čimbenika Zeitgeista, poput povećanog individualizma desetljeća Thatcher/Reagan . [80] Osim toga, postoje i drugi, noviji pogledi i analize njegovih popularnoznanstvenih djela. [81]

U nizu kontroverzi oko mehanizama i tumačenja evolucije (ono što se nazivalo "Darvinovim ratovima"), [82] [83] jedna frakcija često se naziva po Dawkinsu, dok je druga frakcija dobila ime po američkom paleontologu Stephenu Jayu Goulda, odražavajući prednost svakog od njih kao popularizatora odgovarajućih ideja. [84] [85] Konkretno, Dawkins i Gould bili su istaknuti komentatori u kontroverzi oko sociobiologije i evolucijske psihologije, pri čemu je Dawkins općenito odobravao, a Gould općenito bio kritičan. [86] Tipičan primjer Dawkinsovog stava je njegov oštri pregled Ne u našim genima napisali Steven Rose, Leon J. Kamin i Richard C. Lewontin. [87] Dva druga mislioca za koja se često smatra da su saveznici s Dawkinsom po tom pitanju su Steven Pinker i Daniel Dennett Dennett je promovirao pogled na evoluciju usredotočen na gene i branio redukcionizam u biologiji. [88] Unatoč akademskim neslaganjima, Dawkins i Gould nisu imali neprijateljski osobni odnos, a Dawkins je posvetio veliki dio svoje knjige iz 2003. godine. Đavolji kapelan posthumno Gouldu, koji je umro prethodne godine.

Na pitanje informira li darvinizam o svom svakodnevnom poimanju života, Dawkins kaže: "Na jedan način to čini. Moje su oči stalno širom otvorene prema izvanrednoj činjenici postojanja. Ne samo ljudsko postojanje, već postojanje života i kako ovaj proces koji oduzima dah, što je prirodni odabir, uspio je uzeti vrlo jednostavne činjenice iz fizike i kemije i izgraditi ih do sekvoja i ljudi. To nikada nije daleko od mojih misli, tog osjećaja čuđenja. S druge strane, zasigurno ne dopuštam darvinizam utjecati na moje osjećaje o društvenom životu čovjeka ", implicirajući da osjeća da se pojedina ljudska bića mogu isključiti iz stroja za preživljavanje darvinizma budući da su oslobođena sviješću o sebi. [37]

Otac mema Edit

U svojoj knjizi Sebični gen, Dawkins je skovao riječ meme (bihevioralni ekvivalent gena) kao način poticanja čitatelja na razmišljanje o tome kako bi se darvinistički principi mogli proširiti izvan područja gena. [89] Zamišljeno je kao produžetak njegovih argumenata o "replikatorima", ali je dobilo vlastiti život u rukama drugih autora, poput Daniela Dennetta i Susan Blackmore. Ove popularizacije dovele su do pojave memetike, polja od kojeg se Dawkins distancirao. [90]

Dawkinsov meme odnosi se na bilo koji kulturni entitet kojeg promatrač može smatrati replikatorom određene ideje ili skupa ideja. Pretpostavio je da ljudi mogu smatrati mnoge kulturne entitete sposobnima za takvu replikaciju, općenito kroz komunikaciju i kontakt s ljudima, koji su se razvili kao učinkoviti (iako ne savršeni) kopiratelji informacija i ponašanja. Budući da se memi ne kopiraju uvijek savršeno, mogli bi postati dotjerani, kombinirani ili na neki drugi način izmijenjeni s drugim idejama, što rezultira novim memama, koje se i same mogu pokazati više ili manje učinkovitim replikatorima od njihovih prethodnika, pružajući tako okvir za hipotezu o kulturnoj evoluciji na temelju mema, pojma koji je analogan teoriji biološke evolucije koja se temelji na genima. [91]

Iako je Dawkins izmislio izraz meme, nije tvrdio da je ideja bila potpuno nova, [92] a u prošlosti je bilo i drugih izraza za slične ideje. Na primjer, John Laurent je sugerirao da je izraz možda potekao iz rada malo poznatog njemačkog biologa Richarda Semona. [93] Semon je smatrao "mneme" kao kolektivni skup tragova živčane memorije (svjesni ili podsvjesni) koji su naslijeđeni, iako bi takvo gledište moderni biolozi smatrali lamarckovskim. [94] Laurent je također pronašao upotrebu tog izraza mneme u Mauricea Maeterlincka Život bijelog mrava (1926), a sam je Maeterlinck izjavio da je izraz dobio od Semonovog djela. [93] U svom je radu Maeterlinck pokušao objasniti pamćenje kod termita i mrava tvrdeći da su tragovi neuronske memorije dodani "na individualnom mnemu". [94] Ipak, James Gleick opisuje Dawkinsov koncept mema kao "njegov najpoznatiji izum za pamćenje, daleko utjecajniji od njegovih sebičnih gena ili njegovog kasnijeg prozelitiziranja protiv religioznosti". [95]

Zaklada Uređivanje

Dawkins je 2006. osnovao Zaklada Richarda Dawkinsa za razum i znanost (RDFRS), neprofitna organizacija. RDFRS je financirao istraživanje o psihologiji vjerovanja i religije, financirao programe i materijale za znanstveno obrazovanje te objavljivao i podržavao dobrotvorne organizacije sekularne prirode. [96] U siječnju 2016. objavljeno je da se zaklada spaja s Centrom za istraživanje, pri čemu je Dawkins postao član upravnog odbora nove organizacije. [97]

Kritika religije Uredi

Dawkins je potvrđen u Engleskoj crkvi u dobi od 13 godina, no počeo je postajati skeptičan prema vjerovanjima. Rekao je da ga je njegovo razumijevanje znanosti i evolucijskih procesa dovelo u pitanje kako bi odrasli na vodećim pozicijama u civiliziranom svijetu još uvijek mogli biti toliko neobrazovani u biologiji [98], te je zbunjen time kako bi vjera u Boga mogla ostati među sofisticiranim pojedincima u znanosti. Dawkins napominje da neki fizičari koriste 'Boga' kao metaforu za općenite misterije svemira koje izazivaju strahopoštovanje, što izaziva zbunjenost i nerazumijevanje među ljudima koji pogrešno misle da govore o mističnom biću koje oprašta grijehe, pretpostavlja vino ili čini ljude žive nakon što umru. [99] Ne slaže se s načelom Stephena Jaya Goulda o nepreklapajućoj magisteriji (NOMA) [100] i sugerira da bi postojanje Boga trebalo tretirati kao znanstvenu hipotezu kao i svaku drugu. [101] Dawkins je postao istaknuti kritičar religije i izjavio je svoje protivljenje religiji kao dvostruko: religija je i izvor sukoba i opravdanje za vjerovanje bez dokaza. [102] Smatra vjeru - vjeru koja se ne temelji na dokazima - "jednim od velikih svjetskih zala". [103]

U svom spektru teističke vjerojatnosti, koji ima sedam razina između 1 (100% sigurnost da Bog ili bogovi postoje) i 7 (100% sigurnost da Bog ili bogovi ne postoje), Dawkins je rekao da je 6,9, što predstavlja "de facto ateist" koji misli "Ne mogu sa sigurnošću znati, ali mislim da je Bog vrlo nevjerojatan, a ja živim svoj život pod pretpostavkom da on nije tamo." Na pitanje o njegovoj laganoj nesigurnosti, Dawkins odvraća: "Ja sam agnostik u onoj mjeri u kojoj sam agnostičan u pogledu vila na dnu vrta." [104] [105] U svibnju 2014., na Hay Festivalu u Walesu, Dawkins je objasnio da, iako ne vjeruje u natprirodne elemente kršćanske vjere, i dalje ga osjeća nostalgija za ceremonijalnom stranom religije. [106] Osim vjerovanja u božanstva, Dawkins je kritizirao vjerska uvjerenja kao iracionalna, poput one da je Isus pretvorio vodu u vino, da zametak počinje kao mrlja, da će vas čarobno donje rublje zaštititi, da je Isus uskrsnuo, da dolazi sjeme s kičme, da je Isus hodao po vodi, da sunce zalazi u močvari, da je rajski vrt postojao u Adam-ondi-Ahmanu u Missouriju, da je Isusova majka bila djevica, da je Muhamed podijelio mjesec i da je Lazar je uskrsnuo od mrtvih. [114]

Dawkins je postao poznat u javnim raspravama o znanosti i religiji od objavljivanja svoje najpopularnije knjige, Zabluda Boga, 2006., koji je postao međunarodni bestseler. [115] Od 2015. prodano je više od tri milijuna primjeraka, a knjiga je prevedena na preko 30 jezika. [116] Mnogi su njegov uspjeh vidjeli kao pokazatelj promjene u suvremenom kulturnom zeitgeistu, a također su ga poistovjetili s usponom novog ateizma. [117] U knjizi Dawkins tvrdi da natprirodni stvoritelj gotovo sigurno ne postoji i da je vjerska vjera zabluda - "fiksno lažno uvjerenje". [118] U svom TED govoru u veljači 2002. pod naslovom "Militantni ateizam", Dawkins je pozvao sve ateiste da otvoreno iznesu svoj stav i da se bore protiv upada crkve u politiku i znanost. [119] Dana 30. rujna 2007. Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, Sam Harris i Daniel Dennett sastali su se u Hitchensovoj rezidenciji radi privatne, neumjerene rasprave koja je trajala dva sata. Događaj je snimljen video zapisom pod nazivom "Četiri jahača". [120]

Dawkins vidi obrazovanje i podizanje svijesti kao primarne alate u suprotstavljanju onome što smatra vjerskom dogmom i indoktrinacijom. [49] [121] [122] Ovi alati uključuju borbu protiv određenih stereotipa, te je usvojio taj izraz svijetao kao način povezivanja pozitivnih javnih konotacija s onima koji posjeduju naturalistički svjetonazor. [122] On je dao podršku ideji škole slobodoumlja [123], koja ne bi "indoktrinirala djecu", već bi umjesto toga naučila djecu da traže dokaze i budu skeptični, kritični i otvorenog uma. Takva škola, kaže Dawkins, trebala bi "podučavati usporednu religiju i poučavati je ispravno bez ikakve pristranosti prema određenim religijama, uključujući povijesno važne, ali mrtve religije, poput onih iz stare Grčke i nordijskih bogova, makar samo zato što su ove, poput Abrahamski spisi važni su za razumijevanje engleske književnosti i europske povijesti. [124] [125] Nadahnut uspjesima feministica u podizanju svijesti u izazivanju opće sramote zbog rutinske uporabe "on" umjesto "ona", Dawkins na sličan način sugerira da fraze poput "katoličko dijete" i "muslimansko dijete" treba smatrati društveno apsurdnim kao, na primjer, "marksističko dijete", jer smatra da djecu ne treba klasificirati na temelju ideoloških ili vjerskih uvjerenja svojih roditelja. [122 ]

Dok su neki kritičari, poput književnika Christophera Hitchensa, psihologa Stevena Pinkera i nobelovaca Sir Harolda Krota, Jamesa D. Watsona i Stevena Weinberga, branili Dawkinsov stav o religiji i hvalili njegov rad, [126] drugi, uključujući teoretičara dobitnika Nobelove nagrade fizičar Peter Higgs, astrofizičar Martin Rees, filozof znanosti Michael Ruse, književni kritičar Terry Eagleton, filozof Roger Scruton, akademski i društveni kritičar Camille Paglia, ateistički filozof Daniel Came i teolog Alister McGrath [133] kritizirali su Dawkinsa na raznim osnovama, uključujući tvrdnja da njegovo djelo jednostavno služi kao ateistički pandan vjerskom fundamentalizmu, a ne kao njegova produktivna kritika, te da je u osnovi pogrešno shvatio temelje teoloških pozicija koje tvrdi da opovrgava. Rees i Higgs, osobito, odbacili su Dawkinsov konfrontacijski stav prema religiji kao uzak i "neugodan", pri čemu je Higgs otišao čak do izjednačavanja Dawkinsa s religijskim fundamentalistima koje kritizira. [134] [135] [136] [137] Ateistički filozof John Gray osudio je Dawkinsa kao "antireligioznog misionara", čije su tvrdnje "ni u kojem smislu nove ili izvorne", sugerirajući to "začuđeno u čudu nad radom vlastitom umu, Dawkinsu nedostaje mnogo toga što je važno za ljudska bića. " Gray je također kritizirao Dawkinsovu vjernost Darwinu, navodeći da ako je "znanost za Darwina bila metoda istraživanja koja mu je omogućila da se oprezno i ​​ponizno okrene prema istini, za Dawkinsa je znanost neupitan pogled na svijet". [138] Kao odgovor na svoje kritičare, Dawkins tvrdi da teolozi nisu ništa bolji od znanstvenika u rješavanju dubokih kozmoloških pitanja te da on nije fundamentalist jer je spreman promijeniti mišljenje pred novim dokazima. [139] [140] [141]

Kritika kreacionizma Uredi

Dawkins je istaknuti kritičar kreacionizma, vjerskog uvjerenja da su čovječanstvo, život i svemir stvorili božanstva [142] bez pribjegavanja evoluciji. [143] Opisao je kreacionističko gledište Mlade Zemlje da je Zemlja stara samo nekoliko tisuća godina kao "apsurdnu laž koja smanjuje um". [144] Njegova knjiga iz 1986. Slijepi urar, sadrži trajnu kritiku argumenta iz dizajna, važnog kreacionističkog argumenta. U knjizi Dawkins raspravlja protiv analogije urarstva koju je svojom knjigom proslavio engleski teolog iz osamnaestog stoljeća William Paley Prirodna teologija, u kojem Paley tvrdi da je, baš kao što je sat previše kompliciran i previše funkcionalan da bi nastao samo slučajno, tako i sva živa bića - sa svojom daleko većom složenošću - moraju biti namjenski dizajnirana. Dawkins dijeli mišljenje koje općenito zastupaju znanstvenici da je prirodna selekcija dovoljna za objašnjenje prividne funkcionalnosti i neslučajne složenosti biološkog svijeta, te se može reći da igra ulogu urarstva u prirodi, iako kao automatski, bez vodstva bilo kojeg dizajnera , neinteligentni, slijep urar. [145]

1986. Dawkins i biolog John Maynard Smith sudjelovali su u raspravi Oxford Union protiv A. E. Wilder-Smitha (kreacionista Mlade Zemlje) i Edgara Andrewsa (predsjednika Društva za biblijsko stvaranje). [b] Općenito, međutim, Dawkins je slijedio savjet svog pokojnog kolege Stephena Jaya Goulda i odbio sudjelovati u formalnim raspravama s kreacionistima jer "ono što traže je kisik poštovanja", pa bi im time "dao ovaj kisik samim činom angažiranje s njima uopće ". On sugerira da kreacionistima" ne smeta što će ih tući u svađi. Bitno je da im odajemo priznanje trudeći se javno raspravljati s njima. "[146] U intervjuu s američkim novinarom Billom Moyersom u prosincu 2004. Dawkins je rekao da je" među stvarima koje znanost zna, evolucija jednako sigurna kao sve što znamo. "Kad ga je Moyers ispitivao o upotrebi riječi teorija, Dawkins je izjavio da je "evolucija promatrana. Samo što nije promatrana dok se događa." Dodao je da je "to više kao da detektiv dolazi na mjesto ubojstva nakon što se dogodi. Detektiv zapravo nije vidio da se ubojstvo dogodilo. Ali ono što vidite je ogroman trag. Ogromne količine posrednih dokaza. moglo biti ispisano i engleskim riječima. " [147]

Dawkins se usprotivio uključivanju inteligentnog dizajna u prirodoslovno obrazovanje, opisujući ga kao "uopće ne znanstveni argument, već vjerski". [148] U medijima se naziva "Darwinov Rottweiler", [149] [150] referenca na engleskog biologa T. H. Huxleyja, koji je bio poznat kao "Darwinov buldog" zbog svog zagovaranja evolucijskih ideja Charlesa Darwina. Bio je snažan kritičar britanske organizacije Truth in Science koja promiče učenje kreacionizma u državnim školama, a čiji je rad Dawkins opisao kao "obrazovni skandal". On planira subvencionirati škole putem Zaklade za razum i znanost Richarda Dawkinsa isporukom knjiga, DVD -a i brošura koje se suprotstavljaju njihovom radu. [151]

Politički pogledi Uredi

Dawkins je otvoreni ateist [152] i pristaša raznih ateističkih, sekularnih i humanističkih organizacija, [45] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] uključujući Humanists UK i pokret Brights. [119] Dawkins predlaže da ateisti trebaju biti ponosni, a ne ispričavajući se, naglašavajući da je ateizam dokaz zdravog, neovisnog uma. [159] Nada se da će se što se više ateisti identificiraju, više će javnost postati svjesna koliko ljudi nije vjernik, čime će se smanjiti negativno mišljenje o ateizmu među vjerskom većinom. [160] Nadahnut pokretom za prava homoseksualaca, podržao je Out kampanju kako bi potaknuo ateiste diljem svijeta da javno izjasne svoj stav. [161] Podržao je britansku ateističku reklamnu inicijativu, kampanju ateističkih autobusa 2008. godine, čiji je cilj bio prikupiti sredstva za postavljanje ateističkih oglasa u autobusima na području Londona. [162]

Dawkins je izrazio zabrinutost zbog rasta ljudske populacije i pitanja prenapučenosti. [163] U Sebični gen, ukratko spominje porast stanovništva, dajući primjer Latinske Amerike, čija se populacija, u vrijeme nastanka knjige, udvostručavala svakih 40 godina. Kritičan je prema rimokatoličkim stavovima prema planiranju obitelji i kontroli stanovništva, navodeći da će čelnici koji zabranjuju kontracepciju i "izražavaju sklonost" prirodnim "metodama ograničavanja stanovništva" dobiti upravo takvu metodu u obliku gladovanja. [164]

Kao pristaša Projekta velikih majmuna - pokreta za proširenje određenih moralnih i zakonskih prava na sve velike majmune - Dawkins je pridonio članak 'Praznine u umu' Veliki projekt majmuna knjiga koju su uredili Paola Cavalieri i Peter Singer. U ovom eseju kritizira moralne stavove suvremenog društva koji se temelje na "diskontinuiranom imunitetu vrste". [165]

Dawkins također redovito komentira u novinama i blogovima suvremena politička pitanja te je čest suradnik u online sažetku znanosti i kulture 3 kvarka dnevno. [166] Njegovo mišljenje uključuje protivljenje invaziji na Irak 2003. [167], britansko nuklearno odvraćanje, postupke tadašnjeg predsjednika SAD-a Georgea W. Busha [168] i etiku dizajnerskih beba. [169] Nekoliko je takvih članaka uključeno u Đavolji kapelan, zbornik spisa o znanosti, religiji i politici. Također je pristaša republičke kampanje da britansku monarhiju zamijeni demokratski izabranim predsjednikom. [170] Dawkins se opisao kao glasač laburista sedamdesetih godina [171] i glasač za liberalne demokrate od nastanka stranke. 2009. je na stranačkoj konferenciji govorio protiv zakona o bogohuljenju, alternativne medicine i škola vjere. Na općim izborima u Velikoj Britaniji 2010. godine, Dawkins je službeno podržao liberalne demokrate, podržavajući njihovu kampanju za izbornu reformu i njihovo "odbijanje podnijeti se" vjeri "". [172] Uoči općih izbora 2017., Dawkins je još jednom podržao liberalne demokrate i pozvao glasače da se pridruže stranci.

U travnju 2021. godine Dawkins je na Twitteru rekao: "Neki se muškarci odlučuju identificirati kao žene, a neke se žene odlučuju identificirati kao muškarci. Bit ćete omalovaženi ako poreknete da su oni doslovno ono što identificiraju. Razgovarajte." Nakon što je dobio kritike zbog ovog tvita, Dawkins je odgovorio rekavši da "ne namjeravam omalovažavati trans osobe. Vidim da je moje akademsko pitanje" Diskutiraj "pogrešno protumačeno kao takvo i žao mi je. Također mi nije bila namjera udružiti se s na bilo koji način s republikanskim fanaticima u SAD -u koji sada iskorištavaju ovo pitanje. " [173]

Dawkins has voiced his support for the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation that campaigns for democratic reform in the United Nations, and the creation of a more accountable international political system. [174]

Dawkins identifies as a feminist. [175] He has said that feminism is "enormously important" and "a political movement that deserves to be supported". [176]

Views on postmodernism Edit

In 1998, Dawkins expressed his appreciation for two books connected with the Sokal affair, Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its Quarrels with Science by Paul R. Gross and Norman Levitt and Intellectual Impostures by Sokal and Jean Bricmont. These books are famous for their criticism of postmodernism in U.S. universities (namely in the departments of literary studies, anthropology, and other cultural studies). [177]

Echoing many critics, Dawkins holds that postmodernism uses obscurantist language to hide its lack of meaningful content. As an example he quotes the psychoanalyst Félix Guattari:

"We can clearly see that there is no bi-univocal correspondence between linear signifying links or archi-writing, depending on the author, and this multireferential, multi-dimensional machinic catalysis."

This is explained, Dawkins maintains, by certain intellectuals' academic ambitions. Figures like Guattari or Lacan, according to Dawkins, have nothing to say but want to reap the benefits of reputation and fame that derive from a successful academic career:

"Suppose you are an intellectual impostor with nothing to say, but with strong ambitions to succeed in academic life, collect a coterie of reverent disciples and have students around the world anoint your pages with respectful yellow highlighter. What kind of literary style would you cultivate? Not a lucid one, surely, for clarity would expose your lack of content." [177]

Other fields Edit

In his role as professor for public understanding of science, Dawkins has been a critic of pseudoscience and alternative medicine. His 1998 book Unweaving the Rainbow considers John Keats's accusation that by explaining the rainbow, Isaac Newton diminished its beauty Dawkins argues for the opposite conclusion. He suggests that deep space, the billions of years of life's evolution, and the microscopic workings of biology and heredity contain more beauty and wonder than do "myths" and "pseudoscience". [178] For John Diamond's posthumously published Snake Oil, a book devoted to debunking alternative medicine, Dawkins wrote a foreword in which he asserts that alternative medicine is harmful, if only because it distracts patients from more successful conventional treatments and gives people false hopes. [179] Dawkins states that "There is no alternative medicine. There is only medicine that works and medicine that doesn't work." [180] In his 2007 Channel 4 TV film The Enemies of Reason, Dawkins concluded that Britain is gripped by "an epidemic of superstitious thinking". [181]

Continuing a long-standing partnership with Channel 4, Dawkins participated in a five-part television series, Genius of Britain, along with fellow scientists Stephen Hawking, James Dyson, Paul Nurse, and Jim Al-Khalili. The series was first broadcast in June 2010, and focuses on major, British, scientific achievements throughout history. [182]

In 2014, he joined the global awareness movement Asteroid Day as a "100x Signatory". [183]

In 1987, Dawkins received a Royal Society of Literature award and a Los Angeles Times Literary Prize for his book The Blind Watchmaker. In the same year, he received a Sci. Tech Prize for Best Television Documentary Science Programme of the Year for his work on the BBC's Horizon episode The Blind Watchmaker. [45]

In 1996, the American Humanist Association gave him their Humanist of the Year Award. In 2021, they voted to withdraw it, stating he "demean[ed] marginalized groups", including transgender people, using "the guise of scientific discourse". [187] [173]

Other awards include the Zoological Society of London's Silver Medal (1989), the Finlay Innovation Award (1990), the Michael Faraday Award (1990), the Nakayama Prize (1994), the fifth International Cosmos Prize (1997), the Kistler Prize (2001), the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic (2001), the 2001 and 2012 Emperor Has No Clothes Award from the Freedom From Religion Foundation, the Bicentennial Kelvin Medal of The Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow (2002), [45] the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement (2006), [188] and the Nierenberg Prize for Science in the Public Interest (2009). [189] He was awarded the Deschner Award, named after German anti-clerical author Karlheinz Deschner. [190] The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSICOP) has awarded Dawkins their highest award In Praise of Reason (1992). [191]

Dawkins topped Prospect magazine's 2004 list of the top 100 public British intellectuals, as decided by the readers, receiving twice as many votes as the runner-up. [192] [193] He was shortlisted as a candidate in their 2008 follow-up poll. [194] In a poll held by Prospect in 2013, Dawkins was voted the world's top thinker based on 65 names chosen by a largely US and UK-based expert panel. [195]

In 2005, the Hamburg-based Alfred Toepfer Foundation awarded him its Shakespeare Prize in recognition of his "concise and accessible presentation of scientific knowledge". He won the Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science for 2006, as well as the Galaxy British Book Awards's Author of the Year Award for 2007. [196] In the same year, he was listed by Vrijeme magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2007, [197] and was ranked 20th in Daily Telegraph 's 2007 list of 100 greatest living geniuses. [198]

Since 2003, the Atheist Alliance International has awarded a prize during its annual conference, honouring an outstanding atheist whose work has done the most to raise public awareness of atheism during that year it is known as the Richard Dawkins Award, in honour of Dawkins's own efforts. [199] In February 2010, Dawkins was named to the Freedom From Religion Foundation's Honorary Board of distinguished achievers. [200]

In 2012, ichthyologists in Sri Lanka honored Dawkins by creating Dawkinsia as a new genus name (members of this genus were formerly members of the genus Puntius). [201]

Dawkins has been married thrice and has a daughter. On 19 August 1967, Dawkins married ethologist Marian Stamp in the Protestant church in Annestown, County Waterford, Ireland [202] they divorced in 1984. On 1 June 1984, he married Eve Barham (1951–1999) in Oxford. They had a daughter, Juliet Emma Dawkins (born 1984, Oxford). Dawkins and Barham divorced. [203] In 1992, he married actress Lalla Ward [203] in Kensington and Chelsea, London. Dawkins met her through their mutual friend Douglas Adams, [204] who had worked with her on the BBC's Liječnik koji je. Dawkins and Ward separated in 2016 and they later described the separation as "entirely amicable". [205]

On 6 February 2016, Dawkins suffered a minor haemorrhagic stroke while at home. [206] [207] Dawkins reported later that same year that he had almost completely recovered. [208] [209]

Selected publications Edit

  • Sebični gen. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1976. ISBN978-0-19-286092-7 .
  • The Extended Phenotype. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1982. ISBN978-0-19-288051-2 .
  • The Blind Watchmaker. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. 1986. ISBN978-0-393-31570-7 .
  • River Out of Eden. New York: Basic Books. 1995. ISBN978-0-465-06990-3 . Book text
  • Climbing Mount Improbable. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. 1996. ISBN978-0-393-31682-7 .
  • Unweaving the Rainbow. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1998. ISBN978-0-618-05673-6 .
  • A Devil's Chaplain. Weidenfeld & Nicolson (United Kingdom and Commonwealth), Houghton Mifflin (United States). 2003. ISBN978-0753817506 .
  • The Ancestor's Tale. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2004. ISBN978-0-618-00583-3 .
  • The God Delusion. Bantam Press (United Kingdom), Houghton Mifflin (United States). 2006. ISBN978-0-618-68000-9 .
  • The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution. Transworld (United Kingdom and Commonwealth), Free Press (United States). 2009. ISBN978-0-593-06173-2 .
  • The Magic of Reality: How We Know What's Really True. Bantam Press (United Kingdom), Free Press (United States). 2011. ISBN978-1-4391-9281-8 . OCLC709673132.
  • An Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist. Bantam Press (United Kingdom and United States). 2013. ISBN978-0-06-228715-1 .
  • Brief Candle in the Dark: My Life in Science. Bantam Press (United Kingdom and United States). 2015. ISBN978-0062288431 .
  • Science in the Soul: Selected Writings of a Passionate Rationalist. Slučajna kuća. 2017. ISBN978-1-4735-4166-5 .
  • Outgrowing God: A Beginner's Guide. Slučajna kuća. 2019. ISBN978-1984853912 .

Documentary films Edit

  • Nice Guys Finish First (1986)
  • The Blind Watchmaker (1987) [210]
  • Growing Up in the Universe (1991)
  • Break the Science Barrier (1996)
  • The Atheism Tapes (2004)
  • The Big Question (2005) – Part 3 of the TV series, titled "Why Are We Here?"
  • The Root of All Evil? (2006)
  • The Enemies of Reason (2007)
  • The Genius of Charles Darwin (2008)
  • The Purpose of Purpose (2009) – Lecture tour among American universities
  • Faith School Menace? (2010)
  • Beautiful Minds (April 2012) – BBC4 documentary
  • Sex, Death and the Meaning of Life (2012) [211]
  • The Unbelievers (2013)

Other appearances Edit

Dawkins has made many television appearances on news shows providing his political opinions and especially his views as an atheist. He has been interviewed on the radio, often as part of his book tours. He has debated many religious figures. He has made many university speaking appearances, again often in coordination with his book tours. As of 2016, he has over 60 credits in the Internet Movie Database where he appeared as himself.

  • Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (2008) – as himself, presented as a leading scientific opponent of intelligent design in a film that contends that the mainstream science establishment suppresses academics who believe they see evidence of intelligent design in nature and who criticise evidence supporting Darwinian evolution
  • Liječnik koji je: "The Stolen Earth" (2008) – as himself
  • The Simpsons: "Black Eyed, Please" (2013) – appears in Ned Flanders' dream of Hell provided voice as a demon version of himself [212]
  • Endless Forms Most Beautiful (2015) – by Nightwish: Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish had Dawkins as a guest star on the album. [213][214][215] He provides narration on two tracks: "Shudder Before the Beautiful", in which he opens the album with one of his own quotes, and "The Greatest Show on Earth", inspired by and named after his book The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution, and in which he quotes O podrijetlu vrsta by Charles Darwin. [216][217] He subsequently performed his parts live with Nightwish on 19 December 2015 at the Wembley Arena in London the concert was later released as a part of a live album/DVD titled Vehicle of Spirit.

a. ^ W. D. Hamilton influenced Dawkins and the influence can be seen throughout Dawkins's book Sebični gen. [49] They became friends at Oxford and following Hamilton's death in 2000, Dawkins wrote his obituary and organised a secular memorial service. [218]

b. ^ The debate ended with the motion "That the doctrine of creation is more valid than the theory of evolution" being defeated by 198 votes to 115. [219] [220]


High School Student Attracts Military Attention with Ship Model Fleet

An article in the Evening Outlook newspaper of Santa Monica, California from March 26, 1941 shows a young 17-year old William Tompkins showing a navy captain the 50-plus model ships he had built starting at age nine. Captain G.C. Gearing was the commandant of the 11 th Naval District in San Diego, and he was not the only one in the navy interested in Bill s models. Rear Admiral C.A. Blakeley, who examined the models was quoted in the article as saying, It is with considerable interest and pleasure that I, together with officers of my staff, examined several of the ship models. Craftsmanship such as you have evidenced shows that you are a keen student of detail and naval construction. Best of all, however, you are doing something worthwhile as a young American you are helping to build into the American mind the importance of the nation s first line of defense to each American, young and old. Keep in mind, this attention was taking place only a few months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, when naval forces would take the lead in the war in the Pacific.

Amazing Detail of Models Panics the Navy

Though built at a tiny 1:600 scale, all the ships display an amazing amount of detail. This particular ship has what was called a "Cage" type mast that was only used for a short time by the navy. Note also the catapult mounted airplanes with the catapult mounted atop the rear gun turret. The models are all full hull models, not waterline models. Each lifeboat and airplane is hand made too. (Click on photo to view larger image.)

Mr. Tompkins first taste of attention from the Navy was a little more ominous. A short time before, his collection of models was first displayed in the window of the Broadway department store on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, CA. When representatives of the navy saw the ships, and particularly the accurate representation of details like radar antennas, armament and other things considered classified at the time, a panic ensued. Bill s father was detained and questioned about how the data was obtained, as worry about spies was in a heightened state at that time. Finally convinced the young boy s accuracy was the result of weekend tours of ships anchored in Long Beach harbor that were open to the public at the time and great memory for size, shapes and details they took another tack. Bill was eventually pulled from his second year of high school and inducted into the pre-wartime navy in San Diego.

Early in 1942, naval intelligence officer Lt. Perry Wood, understanding the technical capabilities and historic research necessary to create the ship models, put together a mission package that resulted in Bill's induction into the navy. After completing boot camp in San Diego he was assigned a position in naval intelligence on advanced technology projects. Though only a third class seaman, he replaced a Commander at North Island Naval Air Station in San Diego. The mission statement read in part, "To compile and maintain a continuous survey of the activities of experimental research laboratories, other governmental agencies, educational scientific institutions, manufacturers and research engineers. To undertake upon his own initiative, or at the request of any bureau or office of the Naval Air Forces, studies of specific instrumentalities and techniques for the purpose of outlining research projects." In other words, he was to look for people who knew how to create and build things that worked. He was also assigned to the naval management program and a flight school for existing and future flight missions including flight pay. He ended up flying in almost every aircraft in the navy inventory, at times as the pilot. He also spent four years with access to technology above the level of top secret and was involved in some of the most unprecedented advanced scientific research on the planet. all as a result of building a few model ships.

After the war ended, Bill went to work at Northrop in their secret wind tunnel. While there, he became aware of a program of advanced penetration into aerospace being developed a Douglas Aircraft Company in Santa Monica. He was convinced that's where his future was and got on board in their wind tunnel department. The senior vice president of Douglas was also aware of the ship model collection he had built and was looking for someone to build a model of Donald Douglas' sailboat Endymion as a birthday gift. The VP had a copy of Bill's resume and checked his naval background. No drawings of the ship were available, so Bill was called upon to document the large ship with sketches and then build the model. Even before the model was completed, they were impressed with his abilities and he was transferred into engineering as a draftsman. Because of his former security clearance the section chief reviewed his naval background and soon transferred him into the highly classified Advanced Design Think Tank at Douglas. Once again his ship model expertise had helped him be selected for special notice and advancement.

A wartime department store window display like this that featured Bill's 50 ship models attracted the navy's attention. The signs in this display promote the sale of war bonds at Walker's Department Store. (Click on photo to view a larger image.)

With No Photos Available, a Great Memory was the Key

But how did Bill, at such a young age, model such accurate detail when photography of the ships was prohibited at the time? Before the war, the ships anchored in Long Beach harbor could be toured by the public on weekends but cameras were forbidden. On weekends, Bill s father would drive them to Long Beach to take the public tours of the ships, and he would walk the decks, pacing off locations and sketching them from memory on the ferry ride back to shore. By measuring shadows of antennas on the deck he was able to use his math skills to calculate their height and shape.

The navy s initial suspicion soon turned to respect, and they ended up borrowing the model fleet for use in training and recruitment. A letter directed to President Roosevelt s secretary, Stephen Early in April of 1941 describes the navy s interest in the models to familiarize recruits with the different types of naval ships. Their family s only request was that Bill be allowed to meet briefly with the president in Washington before the models were loaned. Unfortunately, the president was not able to honor this request, but Bill certainly did receive quite a bit of notoriety with the models. At that time it was still his goal to go on to become a naval architect. In fact, a March, 1941 letter from Alexander Lynch, of the Los Angeles County Museum in Exposition Park stated, In my capacity as judge for work of this type and as Senior Preparator Model Maker for the Los Angeles County Museum, I am pleased to recommend his models as an outstanding exhibit of its kind.

Seventeen-year old Bill Tompkins points out the detail on his models to naval Captain H. C. Gearing, commandant of the 11th Naval District in San Diego. Bill was soon inducted into the navy and is shown in the second photo in his uniform holding one of his aircraft carriers. He went on to help design com on the real ships. (Click on either photo to enlarge.)

By July 12, 1941 a copy of The Hoist, the newspaper for the US Naval Training Station in San Diego was headlined, Miniature Fleet Hailed by Naval Authorities Now On Display In Station Library. Fifty-one (other sources say 52) of Bill s warship models were transported to San Diego and placed in cases in the Navy s library.

Bill went on to join the Navy, serving four years on the staff of Admiral Rico Bota assigned to naval intelligence and worked to conceive advanced designs of the bridges of some of the Navy s most advanced ships. He went on to work in several highly classified think tank programs at various aerospace firms conceiving advanced future weapons programs. From there he went on to the Apollo Space Program and was instrumental in the major decisions needed to get America off the planet and to the moon and mars.

The Fleet Now Numbers Over 300 Ships

In 2012, his model fleet now numbers over 307 ships, from a tiny model of the H.L. Hunley the first manned submarine to sink an enemy warship during the Civil War to giant aircraft carriers like the Ronald Reagan, the collection also includes many dirigibles, aircraft and even space vehicles, all in the same scale.

A selection of models in Bill's kitchen show the size of the ships based on the 4" tiles in the countertop. Building the entire fleet in the same scale gives a realistic comparison as to how huge our largest ships really are. (Click to enlarge photo.)

Construction of the Ship Models

According to the articles, the student at Hollywood High School made the models mostly from balsa wood and sugar pine using a razor knife. Each is a full hull model in 1"=50' scale, or 1/600 th of actual size. Each is also accurately painted and all details from deck guns to lifeboats are represented. Aircraft carriers have decks covered with many identical miniature aircraft. Seen as a whole, it is an extremely impressive fleet representing naval history from sail power to nuclear power.

Typical drawings done by Bill Tompkins contain the detail he needed to make accurate representations of the ships he modeled. The last drawing shows the USS Independence on the left and the USS Lexington on the right. (Click on any of the four drawings to view a larger version.)

Bill Tompkins went on to build many more models in his spare time over the years. Over 100 of his ship models were featured in a storefront display in the Puente Hills Mall Harris and Frank Men s Store in 1977. It was sponsored by the local Navy Recruiting Station. Included in the display was a model of the aircraft carrier USS Wasp built by Bill s 14-year old son Dean.

A significant part of the educational value of the collection is the use of a consistent scale for all the models. Comparing size of a sailing ship of the 1800 s to modern submarines, destroyers, battleships and aircraft carriers, one gets a sense of the development of naval design over the past century and a half. Naval aircraft and dirigibles also present an interesting contrast in size compared to the ships. He has put together an excellent PowerPoint presentation that helps illustrate the technology explosion that allowed us to go from a first flight by the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk in 1903 to walking on the moon only 60 years later. He now believes that electromagnetic drives will soon be taking us on further steps to other planets and the stars beyond. At age 88 he still has an enthusiasm for acquisition of knowledge and future travel to distant planets and stars. For him, however, the ship models have served their purpose, and he is willing to part with them to the right buyer to help fund other projects he has in mind.

From Model Trains to Space Travel

Bill Tompkins has authored a number of articles on converting and super-detailing locomotives. Here is a scene on his G-scale garage layout showing several of the engines that were the subjects of his articles. (Click on photo to enlarge image.)

Mr. Tompkins is also known in the model railroading community for his articles in Model Railroader and other magazines on constructing and super-detailing locomotives. Working in scales from N to G, he has build a number of beautiful models and passed on what he learned to the readers. For example, starting in the September, 1987 issue of Model Railroader, Bill had a 2-part article published entitled Building a No.1 scale Cab-Forward that described building a 3/8" = 12" (1/32 scale) articulated locomotive on an LGB mechanism. He has also built and operated several extensive layouts in several scales over the years. As you might expect, the same level of detail he demanded in his ship models was applied to the world of model railroading.

CLICK HERE or on the image at the left to read Bill's article in the 1987 issue of Model Railroader.

Selected by Extraterrestrials

Mr. Tompkins has extensive experience in advanced space research relating to spacecraft and space missions. It includes four years in naval intelligence studying extraterrestrial threats, twelve years as engineering section chief at the Douglas Missile and Space Division, four years as corporate director of North American Advanced Space Research, founder and chairman of the Advanced Space Concept Staff at the think tank within the TRW Space Systems, four years as program director of the 2020 advanced Anti-Sub Warfare program and was a member of the corporate headquarters Red Team at General Dynamics Corporation. This experience has led to his membership in the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), and he has done extensive research into extraterrestrials and unidentified flying objects. He is preparing a six-volume autobiographical study on the subject to be released soon to be entitled Selected by Extraterrestrials. He states that our planet has been a battleground for warring extraterrestrial cultures for thousands of years. The result has been wars, destruction and attempts to hinder progress by some but also recently a great spike in technical innovation due to help from others. He believes that perhaps he and many other uniquely talented people, some of whom are probabaly represented in this museum, have been gifted with skills that more closely reflect what human intelligence is capable of when not held back by outside forces. Regardless of your opinion of the UFO phenomenon, Mr. Tompkins has taken on this subject with the same energy and detail he put into building his fleet of model ships, so this highly technical document should make for a very interesting read. His second book relates to experience at TRW and other top level think tanks. Nazvan Others in the Secret Think Tank, it is due for release in May, 2014. Bill has also spent 47 years in the Navy League of California and was founding chairman and president of the Southern Oregon Navy League Council as well as State vice president of the Oregon Navy League of the United States.

(Left) Bill Tompkins in the right seat of one of the many Navy planes he flew as both co-pilot and pilot. (Right) Bill shares a moment in 2000 with Admiral Larry Marsh at the Southern Oregon Navy League Council. (Click on either photo to enlarge.)

Some Thoughts on Craftsmanship

In speaking with Bill Tompkins for any length of time you soon find that he has a great respect for the ability of craftsmen and, like the museum's late founder,Joe Martin, feels that their contributions to our society are not valued as highly as they should be. He notes that the ability to take on a large project and stick with it to completion is a rare quality in a person and should be highly respected and encouraged. While working in a technical field he often heard the words, "Bill, you can't do that!" He insists that attitude must change. The initial 50 ship models he built at a young age were perhaps unimportant in themselves, but they were the key that got him in the door to all the important and sometimes highly classified programs that he worked on during his life. Continuing to work on the model ships and trains later in life also offered needed relief from the stress of those jobs.

Here are several examples of Bill Tompkins' work:

(Click on photos to view larger images.)

Among the smallest models, the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley from the Civil War is about the size of a paper clip. Built in 1864, it was the first submarine to sink an enemy warship. The nine-man crew turned the propeller crankshaft by hand. An explosive charge on the boom was rammed into the target. The hull was constructed from the boiler of a railroad steam engine and was 40' long and 4' in diameter.

Early attempts at launching aircraft from a ship are shown here. On the left is the cruiser USS Birmingham (CS-3) from 1909. Pilot Eugene Ely was the first to manage a successful takeoff from a ship, flying a Curtiss biplane from the bow of the ship. It was a one-way trip, as landing back on the small ramp was not impossible.

The second photo shows the later cruiser USS Pennsylvania (CA-4) in 1911 from which Eugene Ely was able to both take off and land on the larger ramp mounted on the stern of the ship, making it our first "Aircraft Carrier."

The USS Langley (CV-1) became the first dedicated aircraft carrier, carrying Curtiss biplanes on the deck in 1923. Imagine trying to land a pursuit aircraft on the 50' wide deck, stopping in less than 200 feet before the invention of an arresting cable! Remember also that this was only twenty years after the Wright brothers first flew an aircraft on a flight that went only 120 feet.

With no superstructure above the deck, the bridge was in the bow of the ship below the flight deck. A quarter shows the small size of the airplanes.

Early naval flight history includes the use of lighter-than-air craft. Despite massive funding and manpower allocation, crashes of three of the four dirigibles due to foul weather doomed the program. Associated costs were far less with other systems, and blimps were less expensive.

Compared to an aircraft carrier you can see how large the airships were.

"Blimps" were basically painted canvas bags filled with helium and were referred to as Lighter-than-air craft, while "Dirigibles" (called "Airships" in navy parlance) with their rigid internal structure were properly identified as Heavier-than-air craft. This group of airships and aircraft supplied recon for the fleet.

Shown here is the carrier USS Ranger and airships Shenandoah i Los Angeles with a Curtiss NC-4 Flying Boat that made the first "Around the World" flight.

The first photo shows B-25 bombers on the deck of a carrier poised to make a surprise attack on Tokyo itself. Pilots trained specially for the takeoff on the short deck. There was not enough fuel for a return to a naval base, so after they dropped their bombs on Japan the survivors who could make it continued on to land in or bail out over China. The daring and successful mission was a huge psychological boost to American forces in the Pacific and a warning that even Japan's homeland was no longer safe from the reach of American carriers.


JHU history professor discusses the significance of the March on Washington

Image caption: The March on Washington for for Jobs and Freedom, Aug. 28, 1963.

Zasluge: Kongresna knjižnica

On Aug. 28, 1963, approximately a quarter million people converged on the nation's capital to demand civil rights for African-Americans. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was one of the largest political rallies in history and where Martin Luther King Jr. gave his "I Have a Dream" speech. This month, on the 50th anniversary of the seminal event, another march is planned to commemorate the original gathering.

Image caption: Johns Hopkins history professor Nathan Connolly

Nathan Connolly, an assistant professor of history at Johns Hopkins specializing in the intersection of civil rights and property rights in modern American history, answered questions about the event's importance as a call for economic justice and how it was a revelation for many Americans on the size and scope of the civil rights movement.

How did the march change the way the civil rights movement was viewed in America?

The March on Washington helped create a new national understanding of the problems of racial and economic injustice. For one, it brought together demonstrators from around the country to share their respective encounters with labor discrimination and state-sponsored racism. With activists from New York City, the Mississippi Delta, or Cambridge, Md., all describing their various encounters with police brutality, labor discrimination, or housing deterioration, it became very difficult to cast racial segregation as an exclusively Southern problem.

Through the mass participation of organized labor, students, religious leaders, and un-unionized domestic workers, the march also re-articulated for national and international audiences the extent to which racism and economic exploitation remained intertwined. In a planning document co-authored by Bayard Rustin, the march's chief organizers explained that, "integration in the fields of education, housing, transportation, and public accommodations will be of limited extent and duration so long as fundamental economic inequality along racial lines persists." The ability of over 200,000 marchers to organizer under such a message—peacefully and with such forceful spokespeople as Martin Luther King, Jr.—forced party politicians and more moderate political operators to respect the ability of the American Left to make clearly stated demands and generate mass support. In addition, the march helped to provide local activists with the moral authority to push back against less progressive forces in their respective home states, making 1963 a critical year, and the march itself a critical event in the transformation of local political regimes around the country.

The economic injustice is something history sometimes overlooks. Can you talk about that aspect of the movement, and the types of changes for which the march paved the way?

At the start of the 1960s, unemployment was not the principal economic problem facing black Americans underemployment was. In New Orleans, Miami, and other Southern cities, for instance, African-Americans principally occupied unskilled, menial, and servile positions in agriculture or domestic work, sometimes in proportions in excess of 80 percent. The March on Washington's organizers, therefore, asked for increases to the minimum wage, government programs for job training, increased protections against unlawful terminations, and improved access to unionized and municipal employment, which tended to carry retirement benefits, health benefits, and other employee protections.

Such demands paved the way for more robust defenses of fair employment laws and affirmative action. The March on Washington also helped give the Kennedy Administration a better appreciation of the degree to which African-Americans' grievances emerged from urban and rural underemployment as much as from more traditional "states rights" issues like voting discrimination and Jim Crow segregation. In fact, Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson, in 1964, was able, to claim that the employment programs of the Great Society were an extension of the civil rights agenda without making any specific reference to race or African-Americans largely because the 1963 march had already reasserted the link between civil rights and economic rights. The kind of "color-blind" defenses of government aid programs witnessed during the Johnson years would become a staple of Democratic electoral and governing strategy for the subsequent 50 years.

At the same time, however, the close association of ostensibly mass economic justice movements with the realm of electoral politics actually fractured the wide-ranging coalition that the march celebrated. At the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, black delegates from Mississippi attempted to make good on the Johnson administration's commitment to racial and economic justice. They organized under the banner of the "Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party" and demanded that the Democratic Party's economic platform also include a denunciation of black voter suppression in Mississippi and a denial of the delegate seats at the convention for the state's regular Democratic Party delegates. On the one side, the refusal of establishment Democrats in national party leadership to respect these demands alienated a number of African-American political leaders from the party's platform. On the other side, the unwillingness of more radical black leaders to withdraw their demands angered formerly supportive white labor leaders, such as the United Auto Workers' lead organizer Walter Reuther, while also embittering Bayard Rustin and other black leaders more committed to compromise than political standoffs.


20 June 1937

Amelia Earhart’s Lockheed Electra 10E Special, NR16020, being serviced at Rangoon, British Burma, 19 June 1937. (Purdue University Libraries, Archives and Special Collections)

20 June 1937: Leg 22. Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan fly the Electra from Rangoon to Bangkok then on to Singapore.

“Moist clouds were our companions as we left Rangoon the next morning, bound for Bangkok, Siam. First, we crossed the upper reaches of the Gulf of Martaban, flying over Moulmein. . . A great range of mountains extends north and south along the western border of Siam, separating it from the long arm of Burma that reaches down into the Malay Peninsula. Through squally weather we climbed to 8,000 feet and more, topping this mountain barrier. On its eastern flanks the clouds broke and there stretched before us a dark green forest splashed with patches of bright color, cheerful even in the eyes of a pilot who recognized in all the limitless view no landing place. The country fell away gradually to the east, the hills flattening out into heavy jungle. Then we crossed the Mei Khlaung River, with little villages scattered along its banks, the wide expanses of irrigated land burdened with rice crops.

“Bangkok itself lies in a vast plain with mountains in the distant background. . . After refueling at Bangkok (the airport was one of the best we encountered) we started for Singapore, more than 900 miles away. . . Though we did not sight them, there were two transport planes that day on the same route which we flew. The Imperial Airways machine left Rangoon first and the K.L.M. Douglas at daybreak. Our Wasp-motored Lockheed left fifteen minutes later. All stopped at Bangkok, then followed different courses to Singapore. We arrived there first, at 5:25 P.M. local time, because we cut straight and did not stop along the way.”

Amelia Earhart wrote beautifully. Her notes are full of color and texture. She describes the land and the sea and the sky, the towns and cities and the people. Her descriptions bring all of these to life.

Amelia Earhart’s Lockheed Electra 10E Special, NR16020, being serviced at Singapore, Straits Settlements, 20 June 1937. (Purdue University Libraries, Archives and Special Collections) Great Circle route, Rangoon, Burma, to Bangkok, Siam, 330 nautical miles (379 statute miles/611 kilometers) and then to Singapore, Straits Settlements, 761 nautical miles (875 statute miles/1,409 kilometers) (Great Circle Mapper)


Pacific Battles

The traditionally inward-looking but rapidly industrializing United States began to move onto the world stage in the 1890s. By the end of the century, it was a colonial power, having annexed Hawaii, the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. The nation warmed to its new role, shedding its neutrality in World War I by declaring war on Germany in 1917. The next year it sent a force of 1.75 million soldiers to aid the Allies. O'ahu was caught up in global geopolitics as the expanding Pearl Harbor Naval Station on the island became the emblem of a fledgling U.S. empire with growing interests in the Pacific.

Japan was also making its presence known in the Pacific. Since the 1860s, it had been swiftly modernizing, transforming itself through industrialization and militarization from a dynastic feudal society to a regional power. By 1910, Japan had defeated China and Russia in armed conflicts, annexed Korea and Formosa, and occupied Manchuria. An ally of Britain, it took control of Germany's Pacific islands during World War I. Lacking natural resources to sustain its industry, Japan resolved to establish control over what it called the Southern Resource Area - Southeast Asian countries rich in oil, tin, iron, and rubber - putting it on a collision course with European colonial powers.


King Edward VIII makes inspection tour of the ship.

March 24

The Queen Mary departs John Brown Shipyard, steaming down the Clyde River to Gourock, Scotland. The ship goes aground twice despite prior dredging of the river and her shallow draft. Anchor trials and adjustment of the magnetic compasses are made off Gourock. Twenty of the Queen Mary’s lifeboats were left off the ship to save weight. Since they were manufactured in Gourock, the lifeboats were lifted into their davits upon ship's arrival.


Gledaj video: 26. ožujka 2021. (Prosinac 2022).

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