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Domaće životinje

Domaće životinje


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Sve obitelji koje žive u Yaldingu posjeduju životinje. Stoka uključuje volove, konje, krave, svinje, ovce i piliće. Pronalaženje dovoljno hrane za životinje stalni je problem poljoprivrednika. Krajem jeseni seljani moraju odlučiti koliko si životinja mogu priuštiti da prežive zimi.

Volovi su najcjenjenije životinje u vlasništvu seljaka jer se koriste za oranje zemlje. Većina oranica sastoji se od četiri do osam volova. Kako je seljacima neobično posjedovati više od dva vola, potrebno je da spoje svoje resurse kako bi im zemlja bila učinkovito orana.

Neki seljani za oranje koriste konje. Kad je stanje tla dobro, konji su brži od volova. Međutim, većina seljana radije radije zapošljava volove. Volove je jeftinije držati od konja. Volovi su također spremniji raditi u teškim uvjetima.

Svinje su također popularne životinje za posjedovanje jer imaju sposobnost pronaći hranu za sebe. Omiljena hrana su im žirovi s hrastova i orasi s bukve. Mještani moraju platiti Hughu de Audleyju prije nego što dopusti svojim svinjama da odu u šumu u potragu za hranom.

Svinje mogu nanijeti veliku štetu u potrazi za hranom. Yalding, kao i većina sela u Engleskoj, ima podzakonske propise prema kojima sve svinje moraju imati željezni prsten u nosu. Gilbert Payne je Yaldingov svinjar. Okuplja svinje i odvodi ih u drvo kako bi se hranile žirom. U drugim prilikama vodi ih da se hrane na otpadu. Svake godine ljudi koji žive u Yaldingu daju mu novčić za svaku svinju koju je čuvao.

Svinje mogu proizvoditi dva legla godišnje, a svako leglo može imati šest ili više prasadi. Svinje su spremne za jelo u drugoj godini. Meso koje proizvode svinje važno je za seljake jer životinja opskrbljuje većinu masti u njihovoj prehrani.

Krave se drže radi mlijeka. Krave su skupe i 1336 koštaju više od 9. kupiti. Mještani također imaju poteškoća u pronalaženju dovoljno sijena za zimu.

Većina obitelji mlijeko dobiva od ovčica koje se zovu ovce. Na lokaciji Is. 6d. Ovce su prilično jeftine za kupnju i zimi ih je mnogo lakše hraniti. Iako ovce proizvode samo desetinu mlijeka krave, one također pružaju vunu za odjeću, a po potrebi i za meso tijekom zimskih mjeseci. Njihova balega također pomaže usjevima u rastu.

Godine 1336. u Engleskoj ima pet puta više ovaca nego ljudi. Čuvanje ovaca stvara dodatni posao za seljane. Ovce čine veliku štetu ako uspiju ući u polja uzgajajući usjeve. Stoga ih tijekom dana moraju čuvati, a noću ograđivati. Ovce se također moraju zaštititi od grabežljivaca poput vukova.

1. Pročitajte Životinje u Yaldingu. Ispunite odjeljke 4 i 5 svoje Tablice obiteljskih podataka.

2. Imenujte ljude u selu koji posjeduju: (a) bika; (b) dva ili više volova; (c) najmanje deset krava; (d) više od osamdeset ovaca.

3. Objasnite prednosti i nedostatke držanja ovaca.

5. Pogledajte izvor 1. Kako svinjar pomaže svinjama da nađu hranu?

6. Proučite izvore 2 i 3. (a) Navedite tri moguća razloga zašto čovjek iz izvora 2 koristi volove, a ne konje. (b) Opišite dva pluga koja se koriste na ovim slikama. Objasnite po čemu se ti plugovi razlikuju. Zašto su poljoprivredni radnici koristili dvije različite vrste pluga?


Sve o farmama i štagaljskim životinjama

Farme su poduzeća koja uzgajaju životinje. Kako poljoprivrednici vode svoje poslovanje, često uzgajaju i hranu. Dio hrane uzgojene na farmama hrani stočne životinje, a druga hrana se šalje s farme za prehranu ljudi. Posjet farmi mogao bi uključivati ​​susret s mnogo različitih životinja koje tamo žive. Možda ćete vidjeti krave, svinje, kokoši, konje, ovce, koze, lame i magarce kako žive na farmama. Životinje poput konja također mogu pomoći u radu na farmi, iako poljoprivrednici većinu tog posla obavljaju strojevima na suvremenim farmama.

Farma može uzgajati krave za mlijeko ili govedinu. Farma mlijeka obično drži mnoge krave i pomuze ih dva ili tri puta dnevno, skupljajući mlijeko za prodaju. Poljoprivrednici hrane krave posebnom mješavinom žitarica koja će ih održati zdravima i pomoći im u proizvodnji mnogo mlijeka. Krava može pojesti do 100 kilograma hrane svaki dan, a može popiti čak 50 litara vode. Poljoprivrednici dobro brinu o svojim kravama kako bi ih održali zdravima, često ih puštajući da lutaju po pašnjacima tijekom dana i dok ih se ne muže. Goveda koja se uzgajaju za govedinu ne muzu se. Poljoprivrednici posebno brinu o stoci kako bi im pomogli da izrastu u velike, snažne životinje. Kad goveda narastu do određene veličine, poljoprivrednici ih šalju u drugu tržnicu. Krave na farmi obično spavaju u stajama.

Neki poljoprivrednici uzgajaju svinje. Ženka svinje naziva se krmača, a mužjak svinjom. Poljoprivrednici obično drže svinje u zatvorenom prostoru kako bi se mogli pažljivo brinuti za njih. Prosječna svinja može narasti do 600 do 900 kilograma, ali neke svinje mogu težiti i do 1000 kilograma. Uzgajivači svinja posebno se brinu o svinjama, hrane ih i zalijevaju, tako da rastu i ostaju zdravi. Kad svinje postanu dovoljno velike i velike, farmer ih proda i oni napuštaju farmu.


Virtualno | Domaće životinje

U ponudi cijele godine: Da ste posjetili farmu 1900. godine, velike su šanse da ćete u staji pronaći nekoliko pilića, konja, a možda čak i ovaca. Kako dani postaju sve kraći, a lišće postaje boje, životinje i poljoprivrednici se spremaju za zimu. Dođite i virtualno posjetite naše životinje i saznajte kako se poljoprivrednik brine za zadovoljenje osnovnih potreba životinja i kako se životinje prilagođavaju godišnjim dobima. Učenici će shvatiti da životinje imaju važne poslove na farmi i naučit će kako članovi obitelji na farmi, uključujući i djecu, dijele brigu o životinjama. Zatim se uključite u neke eksperimente kod kuće u učionici kako biste otkrili kul stvari koje jaja mogu učiniti. (Osim što je ukusno, naravno!)

Virtualni izleti sadrže zabavne praktične aktivnosti osmišljene tako da angažiraju vaše učenike. Svaki program uključuje:

  • Pitanja ili aktivnosti za zagrijavanje prije izleta kako bi učenici potaknuli razmišljanje o temi
  • Internetska lekcija od 30-40 minuta koju vode naši prirodnjaci, s zanimljivim informacijama i smjernicama za pripremu učenika za njihove praktične aktivnosti
  • Praktična aktivnost za učenike da istražuju na otvorenom kod kuće ili u školi
  • Završna pitanja nakon izleta koja će poslužiti nastavnicima pri ocjenjivanju

Ciljevi programa

  • Životni ciklusi životinja
  • Kako se poljoprivrednici brinu o svojim životinjama
  • Važni poslovi životinja i djece na farmi 1900

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S. Aerts D. Lips S. Spencer E. Decuypere J. Tavernier Particle De (2006.) Naslov članka „Novi okvir za procjenu dobrobiti životinja: Integracija postojećeg znanja s perspektive praktične etike“. Časopis za etiku poljoprivrede i okoliša 19 IssueID 1 67–76

Berdoy, M. (2002), "Laboratorijski štakor: Prirodna povijest", http://www.ratlife.org.

F. W. R. Brambell (1965.) Izvještaj Tehničkog odbora za ispitivanje dobrobiti životinja koje se drže u sustavima intenzivnog stočarstva HMSO London

A. M. Beck A. H. Katcher (1996) Between Pets & amp People: The Importance of Animal Companionhip Purdue University Press West Lafayette, IN

J. P. Broida L. Tingley R. Kimball J. Miele (1993.) Naslov članka „Razlike osobnosti između profesionalaca i antivivisekcionista“ Društvo i životinje 1 129–144

T. Hardy (1985.) Gradonačelnik Casterbridge Penguin Classics Edition London

A. M. Hills (1993.) Naslov članka "Motivacijske osnove stavova prema životinjama" Društvo i životinje 1 111–128

Jensen, P. (2005.), „Pripitomljavanje i ponašanje životinja“, u Od Darwina do Dawkinsa: znanost i implikacije osjećanja životinja, London: Suosjećanje u svjetskoj poljoprivredi.

Littlefair, P. (2005), "Zašto se Kina budi zbog dobrobiti životinja", u Od Darwina do Dawkinsa: znanost i implikacije osjećanja životinja, London: Suosjećanje u svjetskoj poljoprivredi (Sažetak).

H. G. Parker L. V. Kim N. B Sutter S. Carlson T. D. Lorentzen T. B. Malek G. S. Johnson H. B. DeFrance E. A. Ostrander L. Kruglyak (2004) Naslov članka „Genetska struktura čistokrvnog domaćeg psa“ Znanost 304 1160–1164 Ručka za pojavu 10.1126/znanost.1097406

Regan, T. (2005), "Imaju li osjećajna bića svojstvenu vrijednost?" u Od Darwina do Dawkinsa: znanost i implikacije osjećanja životinja. London: Suosjećanje u svjetskoj poljoprivredi (Sažetak).

J. A. Serpell (1986.) U društvu životinja Cambridge University Press Cambridge

J. Webster (1995) Dobrobit životinja: Hladno oko prema Eden Blackwell Science Oxford

Webster, J. (2005), "Ideali i stvarnosti: što dugujemo domaćim životinjama?" u Od Darwina do Dawkinsa: Znanost i implikacije osjećanja životinja, London: Suosjećanje u svjetskoj poljoprivredi (Sažetak).

F. Wemelsfelder (1997.) „Istraživanje gledišta životinja. Istraga o predmetnoj metodi mjerenja u području dobrobiti životinja ”M. Dol S. Kasanmoetalib S. Lijmbach E. Rivas R. Bos Čestica van den (Eds) Svjesnost životinja i životinjska etika Van Gorcum Assen 73–89


Sadržaj

Stočarstvo kao riječ koja se prvi put koristila između 1650. i 1660., kao složena riječ koja kombinira riječi "živo" i "dionica". [9] U nekim razdobljima "stoka" i "stoka" korišteni su naizmjenično. Danas je suvremeno značenje goveda pripitomljena goveda, dok stoka ima širi smisao. [10]

Federalno zakonodavstvo Sjedinjenih Država definira pojam kako bi određene poljoprivredne robe postale prihvatljive ili neprikladne za program ili aktivnost. Na primjer, Zakon o obveznom izvješćivanju o stoci iz 1999. (PL 106–78, naslov IX) definira stoku samo kao goveda, svinje i ovce, dok je zakonodavstvo o pomoći u slučaju katastrofe iz 1988. definiralo pojam „goveda, ovce, koze, svinje, perad“. (uključujući perad za proizvodnju jaja), kopitarske životinje koje se koriste za hranu ili u proizvodnji hrane, ribu koja se koristi za hranu i druge životinje koje odredi tajnik. " [11]

Zastoj definira se u suprotnosti sa stokom kao "životinje koje su uginule prije klanja, ponekad od bolesti ili bolesti". U mnogim zemljama, poput Kanade, zabranjeno je prodavati ili prerađivati ​​meso mrtvih životinja za prehranu ljudi. [12]

Uzgoj životinja nastao je tijekom kulturnog prijelaza u naseljene poljoprivredne zajednice iz načina života lovaca i sakupljača. Životinje su pripitomljene ako njihov uzgoj i uvjete života kontroliraju ljudi. S vremenom su se radikalno promijenili kolektivno ponašanje, životni ciklus i fiziologija stoke. Mnoge suvremene domaće životinje neprikladne su za život u divljini.

Pas se pripitomio rani psi pojavljuju se u Europi i na Dalekom istoku prije otprilike 15.000 godina. [13] Koze i ovce pripitomljene su u više događaja prije između 11.000 i 5.000 godina u jugozapadnoj Aziji. [14] Svinje su pripitomljene 8.500 godina prije Krista na Bliskom istoku [15] i 6.000 godina prije Krista u Kini. [16] Pripitomljavanje konja datira oko 4000. godine prije Krista. [17] Goveda su pripitomljena prije otprilike 10 500 godina. [18] Pilići i druga perad možda su bili pripitomljeni oko 7000 godina prije Krista. [19]

Izraz "stoka" je maglovit i može se definirati usko ili široko. Općenito, stoka se odnosi na bilo koju pasminu ili populaciju životinja koje ljudi drže u korisne, komercijalne svrhe.

Životinja Divlji predak Pripitomljavanje Iskorištenje Slika
Konj Tarpan Mongolija Jahanje, utrke, nošenje i povlačenje tereta, mesa, mlijeka
Magarac Afričko divlje dupe Afrika Teretna zvijer i propuh
Goveda Euroazijski aurohi Euroazija Meso, mlijeko, promaja
Zebu Indijski aurohi Euroazija Mlijeko, meso i promaja.
Bali stoka Banteng JI Azija Meso, mlijeko i propuh
Jak Divlji jak Tibet Spakirajte životinje, mlijeko, meso i sakrijte se
Voda bivola Bivoli od divlje vode Indiji i JI Aziji Meso, mlijeko i teretna zvijer
Gayal Gaur Indiji i Maleziji Teretna zvijer i propuh
Ovce Mouflon Irana i Male Azije Meso, mlijeko i runo.
Jarac Bezoarski kozorog Grčkoj i Pakistanu Meso, mlijeko i runo
Sob Sob Euroazija Namaz, mlijeko, meso i koža
Baktrijska deva Divlja baktrijska deva Srednja Azija Jahanje i utrke
Arapska deva Tomasova deva Sjeverna Afrika i JZ Azija Jahanje i utrke
Lama Guanaco Ande Pakirajte životinje i runo
Alpaka Guanaco Ande Runo
Domaća svinja Divlji vepar Euroazija Meso
Zec Europski zec Europa Meso
zamorac Montansko zamorče Ande Meso

Mikro stoka Edit

Mikro stoka je izraz koji se koristi za mnogo manje životinje, obično sisavce. Dvije prevladavajuće kategorije su glodavci i lagomorfi (zečevi). Drže se i uzgajaju čak i manje životinje, poput cvrčaka i medonosnih pčela. Mikro stoka općenito ne uključuje ribu (akvakultura) ili piliće (uzgoj peradi).

Tradicionalno, stočarstvo je bilo dio načina života uzgojnih poljoprivrednika, ne samo da je proizvodilo hranu potrebnu obitelji, već i gorivo, gnojiva, odjeću, transport i snagu za vuču. Ubijanje životinje radi hrane bilo je sekundarno razmatranje, a gdje god je to bilo moguće njeni proizvodi, poput vune, jaja, mlijeka i krvi (od strane Masaja) ubrani su dok je životinja još bila živa. [20] U tradicionalnom sustavu transhumance, ljudi i stoka su se sezonski kretali između fiksnih ljetnih i zimskih pašnjaka u planinskim predjelima, ljetni pašnjak bio je gore u planinama, zimski pašnjak u dolinama. [21]

Životinje se mogu intenzivno ili intenzivno držati. Opsežni sustavi uključuju životinje koje lutaju po volji ili pod nadzorom stočara, često radi njihove zaštite od predatora. Uzgoj stoke u zapadnim Sjedinjenim Državama uključuje velika stada goveda koja napasaju javna i privatna zemljišta. [22] Slične stanice za stoku nalaze se u Južnoj Americi, Australiji i drugim mjestima s velikim površinama zemlje i niskim oborinama. Sustavi uzgoja korišteni su za ovce, jelene, nojeve, emue, lame i alpake. [23] U uzvišenjima Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva, ovce se u proljeće izbacuju na trupce i bez paše pase obilnu planinsku travu, dovode se na niže nadmorske visine kasno u godini, a zimi se daje dodatna hrana. [24]

U ruralnim područjima svinje i perad mogu dobiti većinu svoje hrane hranom, a u afričkim zajednicama kokoši mogu živjeti mjesecima bez hrane, a i dalje proizvode jedno ili dva jaja tjedno. [20] S druge strane, u razvijenijim dijelovima svijeta, životinjama se često intenzivno upravlja, mliječne krave mogu se držati u uvjetima nulte paše sa svom stočnom hranom koja se donose, goveda se mogu držati u hranilištima velike gustoće [25 ] svinje mogu biti smještene u zgradama s kontroliranim klimom i nikada ne smiju izlaziti na otvoreno [26] perad se može uzgajati u stajama i držati u kavezima kao ptice nesilice u uvjetima kontroliranim osvjetljenjem. Između ove dvije krajnosti nalaze se poluintenzivna, često obiteljska poljoprivredna gospodarstva na kojima stoka napasuje veći dio godine, silaža ili sijeno se pokrivaju u doba godine kada trava prestaje rasti te se kupuju gnojiva, stočna hrana i drugi inputi na farmu izvana. [27]

Stočari su patili od grabežljivosti divljih životinja i krađe od strane šuškara. U Sjevernoj Americi životinje poput sivog vuka, grizlija, pume i kojota ponekad se smatraju prijetnjom stoci. U Euroaziji i Africi predatori su vuk, leopard, tigar, lav, rupa, azijski crni medvjed, krokodil, pjegava hijena i druge mesožderke. U Južnoj Americi divlji psi, jaguari, anakonde i medvjedi u naočalama prijetnja su stoci. U Australiji su dingo, lisica i orao s klinastim repom uobičajeni grabežljivci, uz dodatnu prijetnju domaćih pasa koji mogu ubiti kao odgovor na lovački instinkt, ostavljajući trup nepojeden. [28] [29]

Dobro uzgoj, pravilno hranjenje i higijena glavni su doprinos zdravlju životinja na farmi, donoseći ekonomsku korist kroz maksimalnu proizvodnju. Kad se, unatoč ovim mjerama opreza, životinje i dalje razbole, farmer i veterinar liječe ih veterinarskim lijekovima. U Europskoj uniji, kada poljoprivrednici tretiraju vlastite životinje, moraju slijediti smjernice za liječenje i evidentirati dane tretmane. [30]

Životinje su osjetljive na niz bolesti i stanja koja mogu utjecati na njihovo zdravlje. Neki, poput klasične svinjske kuge [31] i grebena [32] specifični su za jednu vrstu stoke, dok drugi, poput slinavke i šapa, pogađaju sve papkare. [33] Tamo gdje je stanje ozbiljno, vlade nameću propise o uvozu i izvozu, kretanju zaliha, ograničenjima karantene i izvještavanju o sumnjivim slučajevima. Cjepiva su dostupna protiv određenih bolesti, a antibiotici se široko koriste gdje je to potrebno.

Nekad su se antibiotici rutinski dodavali određenim složenim namirnicama kako bi se potaknuo rast, ali ta se praksa sada ne smatra u mnogim zemljama zbog rizika da može dovesti do rezistencije na antibiotike. [34] Životinje koje žive u intenzivnim uvjetima posebno su sklone unutarnjim i vanjskim parazitima sve veći broj ušiju utječu na uzgojenog lososa u Škotskoj. [35] Smanjenje opterećenja stoke parazitima rezultira povećanjem produktivnosti i isplativosti. [36]

Prema Posebnom izvješću o klimatskim promjenama i zemljištu, očekuje se da će se bolesti stoke pogoršati kako klimatske promjene povećavaju temperaturu i varijabilnost oborina. [37]

Budući da su mnoge stoke životinje stada, povijesno su ih tjerali na tržište "na kopitu" do grada ili drugog središnjeg mjesta. Metoda se još uvijek koristi u nekim dijelovima svijeta. [38]

Kamionski prijevoz danas je uobičajen u razvijenim zemljama. [39]

Lokalne i regionalne aukcije stoke i robna tržišta olakšavaju trgovinu stokom. U Kanadi u klaonici Cargill u High Riveru, Alberta, 2.000 radnika preradi 4.500 goveda dnevno, ili više od jedne trećine kapaciteta Kanade. Zatvorio se kada je pandemija COVID-19 zarazila neke od njegovih radnika. [40] [41] Tvornica Cargill zajedno s pogonom JBS u Brooksu u Alberti i tvornica goveđeg mesa Harmony u Balzacu u Alberti predstavljaju u potpunosti tri četvrtine zaliha kanadske govedine. [41] U drugim područjima, stoka se može kupiti i prodati na bazaru ili na mokroj tržnici, kakva se može naći u mnogim dijelovima središnje Azije.

U zemljama u razvoju, omogućavanje pristupa tržištima potaknulo je poljoprivrednike da ulažu u stoku, a rezultat je bio bolji život. Na primjer, Međunarodni institut za istraživanje usjeva za polusušne trope (ICRISAT) radio je u Zimbabveu kako bi pomogao poljoprivrednicima da maksimalno iskoriste svoja stada stoke. [42]

Na sajmovima dionica poljoprivrednici donose svoju najbolju stoku kako bi se međusobno natjecali. [43]

Stočarstvo ima značajan utjecaj na svjetski okoliš. On je odgovoran za negdje između 20 i 33% svježe potrošnje slatke vode [45] i stoke, te za njihovu proizvodnju hrane zauzimaju oko trećinu zemlje bez leda. [46] Stočarska proizvodnja je faktor koji doprinosi izumiranju vrsta, dezertifikaciji [47] i uništavanju staništa. [48] ​​Meso se smatra jednim od glavnih čimbenika koji pridonose trenutnom šestom masovnom izumiranju. [49] [50] [51] [52] Stočarska poljoprivreda doprinosi izumiranju vrsta na različite načine. Stanište se uništava krčenjem šuma i pretvaranjem zemljišta za uzgoj krmnih biljaka i ispašu životinja, dok su grabežljivci i biljojedi često meta i lovljeni zbog uočene prijetnje po stočni profit, na primjer, stočarstvo je odgovorno za do 91% krčenja šuma u amazonskoj regiji. [53]

Osim toga, stoka proizvodi stakleničke plinove. IPCC (Međuvladin panel o klimatskim promjenama) procijenio je da poljoprivreda (uključujući ne samo stočarstvo, već i prehrambene kulture, biogoriva i drugu proizvodnju) čini oko 10 do 12 posto globalnih antropogenih emisija stakleničkih plinova (izraženih kao 100-godišnji ugljični dioksid) ekvivalenta) 2005. [54] i 2010. [55] Krave proizvode oko 570 milijuna kubičnih metara metana dnevno, [56] što čini od 35 do 40% ukupnih emisija metana na planeti. [57] Stoka je odgovorna za 65% svih emisija snažnog i dugovječnog dušikovog oksida stakleničkih plinova povezanih s ljudima. [57] Zbog toga se proučavaju načini ublažavanja utjecaja stočarstva na okoliš. Strategije uključuju korištenje bioplina iz gnoja. [58]

Vrijednost globalne stočarske proizvodnje u 2013. procijenjena je na oko 883 milijarde dolara (konstantna vrijednost od 2005. do 2006. godine). [59]

Stoka pruža razne prehrambene i neprehrambene proizvode, a posljednji uključuju kožu, vunu, lijekove, proizvode od kostiju, industrijske bjelančevine i masti. Za mnoge klanice vrlo malo životinjske biomase može se potrošiti pri klanju. Čak se i crijevni sadržaj uklonjen prilikom klanja može oporabiti za upotrebu kao gnojivo. Stočni gnoj pomaže u održavanju plodnosti pašnjaka. Gnoj se obično sakuplja iz staja i hranilišta za gnojenje usjeva. Ponegdje se životinjski gnoj koristi kao gorivo, bilo izravno (kao u nekim zemljama u razvoju), bilo neizravno (kao izvor metana za grijanje ili za proizvodnju električne energije). U regijama gdje je snaga strojeva ograničena, neke klase stoke koriste se kao teretni fond, ne samo za obradu tla i drugu uporabu na farmi, već i za prijevoz ljudi i robe. Godine 1997. stoka je osiguravala energiju za približno 25 do 64% uzgojne energije u svjetskim sustavima za navodnjavanje, te da je 300 milijuna teglećih životinja korišteno na globalnoj razini u maloj poljoprivredi. [60]

Premda stočarska proizvodnja služi kao izvor prihoda, ona može pružiti dodatne ekonomske vrijednosti ruralnim obiteljima, često služeći kao glavni doprinos sigurnosti hrane i gospodarske sigurnosti. Stoka može poslužiti kao osiguranje od rizika [61] i ekonomski je tampon (prihoda i/ili opskrbe hranom) u nekim regijama i nekim gospodarstvima (npr. Tijekom nekih afričkih suša). Međutim, njegova upotreba kao tampon ponekad može biti ograničena tamo gdje postoje alternative, [62] što može odražavati strateško održavanje osiguranja uz želju za zadržavanjem proizvodne imovine. Čak i nekim vlasnicima stoke u razvijenim zemljama stoka može poslužiti kao neka vrsta osiguranja. [63] Neki uzgajivači usjeva mogu proizvoditi stoku kao strategiju za diverzifikaciju izvora prihoda kako bi se smanjili rizici povezani s vremenom, tržištem i drugim čimbenicima. [64] [65]

Mnoge studije [ koji? ] su pronašli dokaze o društvenoj, ali i ekonomskoj važnosti stoke u zemljama u razvoju i u regijama ruralnog siromaštva, a takvi dokazi nisu ograničeni na pastoralna i nomadska društva. [61] [66] [67] [68] [69]

Društvene vrijednosti u razvijenim zemljama također mogu biti značajne. Na primjer, u studiji o uzgoju stoke dopuštenoj na nacionalnom šumskom zemljištu u Novom Meksiku, SAD, zaključeno je da "uzgoj održava tradicionalne vrijednosti i povezuje obitelji s predačkim zemljama i kulturnom baštinom", te da "osjećaj mjesta, privrženost zemljišta, a vrijednost očuvanja otvorenog prostora bile su uobičajene teme ". "Važnost zemlje i životinja kao sredstava za održavanje kulture i načina života više puta se pojavljivala u odgovorima odbora, kao i subjekti odgovornosti i poštivanja zemlje, životinja, obitelji i zajednice." [70]

U SAD -u profit je nisko rangiran među motivima za uključivanje u uzgoj stoke. [71] Umjesto toga, obitelj, tradicija i željeni način života obično su glavni motivatori za kupnju ranča, a stočari su "povijesno bili spremni prihvatiti nizak prihod od stočarske proizvodnje". [72]


Pet sloboda: Povijest o brizi i dobrobiti životinja

Pet sloboda temelj su dobrobiti životinja od 1960 -ih. Saznajte što su oni i zašto su izdržali.

Zabrinutost oko brige i dobrobiti životinja nije nova tema za one koji uzgajaju životinje, ali nastavlja biti sve veća briga za širu javnost. Sve više ljudi želi znati i razumjeti kako se brine o životinjama, posebno onima koje su odgojene za ulazak u prehrambeni lanac, gdje i kako te životinje žive te kakva je moderna farma. Odgovori na ova pitanja nemaju jedan jedini, točan odgovor. U stvarnosti, postoji bezbroj ispravnih načina za uzgoj životinja ovisno o pasmini životinja i rsquo i & ldquojobu & rdquo (npr. Goveda uzgojena za proizvodnju mliječnih proizvoda, goveda uzgojena za proizvodnju govedine) veličini, lokaciji, klimi, objektima, osoblju, ciljevima farme i nekoliko drugih čimbenici. Ono što ostaje isto na svim farmama je da se poljoprivrednici brinu o životinjama koje uzgajaju i žele da životinje napreduju. Jedan od načina da se osigura da su životinje u dobrom stanju je upotreba Pet sloboda kao mjerila za zadovoljavanje potreba životinja i rsquo -a.

Da bismo razumjeli važnost Pet sloboda i zašto su one razvijene, vratimo se & rsquos na 1964. godinu kada je Ruth Harrison, Britanka, napisala & ldquoŽivotinjski strojevi. & Rdquo Knjiga je opisala intenzivnu stočarsku praksu i uzgoj peradi tog vremena. Negodovanje britanske javnosti u vezi s informacijama iz knjige potaknulo je britansku vladu da imenuje odbor za ispitivanje dobrobiti domaćih životinja. Godine 1965., odbor pod predsjedanjem profesora Rogera Brambella predstavio je 85-stranica & ldquoIzvješće Tehničkog odbora za ispitivanje dobrobiti životinja koje se drže u sustavima intenzivnog uzgoja stoke, & rdquo koje je postalo poznato kao & ldquo Brambelovo izvješće. & Rdquo

Ukratko, u izvješću se navodi da bi životinje trebale imati slobodu & ldquoto ustati, leći, okrenuti se, dotjerati se i protegnuti udove. & Rdquo Ove su slobode postale poznate kao & ldquoBrambell & rsquos Pet sloboda & rdquo te su proširene kako bi se napravio detaljniji popis potrebe. Savjetodavni odbor za dobrobit poljoprivrednih životinja osnovan je kao odgovor na izvješće Brambella i kolega & rsquo za praćenje sektora stočarske proizvodnje. 1979. ime je promijenjeno u Vijeće za dobrobit poljoprivrednih životinja (sada Odbor), a do kraja iste godine početnih je pet sloboda kodificirano u donji format.

Dobrobit životinje, koja uključuje njezino fizičko i psihičko stanje, način na koji se nosi sa svojom okolinom, te uključuje ljudska iskustva i etiku za procjenu dobrobiti životinja promatranjem i tumačenjem ponašanja i zdravstvenog stanja životinje. Kodificiranih pet sloboda su sljedeće:

  1. Sloboda od gladi i žeđi: lakim pristupom slatkoj vodi i dijetom za održavanje zdravlja i energije.
  2. Sloboda od nelagode: pružanjem odgovarajućeg okruženja uključujući sklonište i ugodno odmorište.
  3. Sloboda od boli, ozljeda ili bolesti: prevencijom ili brzom dijagnostikom i liječenjem
  4. Sloboda izražavanja normalnog ponašanja: osiguravanjem dovoljno prostora, odgovarajućih objekata i društva životinja i vlastitih vrsta.
  5. Sloboda od straha i nevolje: osiguravanjem uvjeta i liječenja koji izbjegavaju duševne patnje.

Pet sloboda koristi se kao osnova za pisanje protokola o brizi o životinjama i očekivanja za mnoge profesionalne skupine, uključujući i veterinare kako je navedeno na web stranici Američke veterinarske medicinske asocijacije. Usvojile su ih međunarodne reprezentativne skupine, uključujući Svjetsku organizaciju za zdravlje životinja i Kraljevsko društvo za sprječavanje okrutnosti prema životinjama. Većina revizija dobrobiti životinja razvijenih za provedbu na farmama i u prerađivačkim pogonima temelji se na Pet sloboda.

Utjecaj i upotreba Pet sloboda široko je rasprostranjena u cijelom svijetu. Predstojeći članak s proširenja Sveučilišta Michigan State bit će usredotočen na prepoznavanje načina na koji se skrbnici životinja, osobito mladi u 4-H projektima o znanosti o životinjama, svakodnevno koriste Pet sloboda u brizi o životinjama.


GOVEDA

Goveda su goveda koja potječu od drevnih životinja zvanih aurochs. Imaju složene želuce s četiri odjeljka koji se zovu buragi i jedu vegetaciju. U prirodi stoka guta cijelu hranu. Kasnije se djelomično probavljena hrana ili cud vraća u usta kako bi ih mogli žvakati. "Žvakanje cuda" dobro je poznata osobina goveda. Prirodni životni vijek goveda je dvadeset do dvadeset pet godina.

Postoji mnogo različitih pasmina goveda. Neki se posebno uzgajaju za meso (poput Angusa i Hereforda), dok se drugi uzgajaju za proizvodnju mlijeka (poput dresova). Odrasle ženke goveda nazivaju se krave. Mjesecima proizvode mlijeko za svoju tek rođenu telad. Ljudi su davno naučili oduzimati teladi majkama i skupljati mlijeko za prehranu ljudi. Mlade ženke krava koje još nisu rodile zovu se junice. Nekastrirano odraslo muško govedo naziva se bikovi. Koriste se samo u uzgojne svrhe. Muško govedo kastrirano prije nego što dosegne spolnu zrelost naziva se bikovi. Oni su glavni izvor govedine u ovoj zemlji.

Kao što je prikazano u tablici 4.2, 2005. godine na farmama u SAD-u bilo je više od 97,1 milijuna goveda. Slika 4.5 pokazuje da se zalihe goveda dramatično povećale tijekom ranih 1970-ih, a zatim smanjile, da bi se sredinom 1990-ih izjednačile.

Govedina

POVIJEST

Početkom dvadesetog stoljeća američka stočna industrija bila je koncentrirana u zapadnim državama. Kauboji su goveda tjerali na tržnice u velikim gradovima sa željezničkim čvorištima. Goveda su se željeznicom otpremala do velikih skladišta i centara za klanje/preradu na mjestima kao što su Chicago i Kansas City. Kako su se hlađenje i električna energija širili cijelom zemljom, klaonice su se mogle odseliti iz velikih gradova u ruralna područja.

Tijekom 1950 -ih velike mesne tvrtke počele su postavljati hranilišta za stoku, prvo u Velikim ravnicama, a kasnije i zapadnije. (Vidi sliku 4.6.) Prije tog vremena stoka je uglavnom jela travu, s dodatkom kukuruza i drugih žitarica za tov. Zaklani su kad su dosegli tržišnu veličinu, oko tri do četiri godine starosti. Američki poljoprivrednici počeli su proizvoditi višak kukuruza sredinom 1950-ih, a on je postao primarna hrana za goveda. Goveda koja se hrane ishranom bogatom kukuruzom puno su se udebljala i mogla su se zaklati mnogo prije nego stoka hranjena travom. Govedina hranjena kukuruzom imala je bogat, mastan okus s mramornom teksturom i bila je nježnija od govedine koja se hrani travom. Također je bilo puno jeftinije. Ozbiljan marketing trgovina mješovitom robom doveo je do velike potražnje za govedinom hranjenom kukuruzom.

POSTOJEĆI UVJETI

Tablica 4.5 prikazuje broj hranilišta i njihov inventar od 1. siječnja 2006. U to vrijeme u Sjedinjenim Državama bilo je više od četrnaest milijuna goveda na otprilike osamdeset osam tisuća hranilišta. Velika većina hranilišta (97,5%) sadržavala je manje od tisuću grla goveda. Međutim, mali broj hranilišta koja su sadržavala više od trideset i dvije tisuće grla goveda čini veliki dio (40,4%) sve stoke na hranilištima. Više je od 5,7 milijuna goveda tada bilo na tim masivnim hranilištima.

Većina goveda se zakolje u dobi od četrnaest do šesnaest mjeseci. Calves spend the first six to eight months of their lives with their mothers, drinking milk and grazing on grass at farms and ranches around the country. This is called the cow-calf stage of the business. Following weaning, most calves are moved to large, crowded feedlots — outdoor grassless enclosures — to be "finished" for slaughter. During finishing the cattle receive virtually no exercise to prevent muscle buildup and fat loss. The animals are given various drugs to help them digest the rich corn diet and fend off disease from the crowded and often dirty conditions.

In March 2002 the reporter Michael Pollen purchased an eight-month-old calf from a South Dakota ranch and chronicled the calf's life in "Power Steer" (New York Times, March 31, 2002). Following weaning, Pollen's calf spent several months in a backgrounding pen becoming accustomed to a corn diet before being shipped to a feedlot. At the feedlot, crowded with thirty-seven thousand cattle, the calf was fed a diet of corn, fat, protein supplements, and some alfalfa hay and corn silage for roughage. The calf was given antibiotics to help it digest this new diet.

TABLE 4.5
Cattle feedlot breakdown, by number and inventory, January 1, 2006
Feedlot capacity (head)Number of feedlots%January 1, 2006, inventory (1,000 head)%
Source: "Table A1.6. Cattle-on-Feed Production," in 2005 United States Animal Health Report, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, August 2006, http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_health/content/printable_version/AHR_Web_PDF/J_appendices.pdf (accessed November 28, 2006)
<1,00086,00097.52,32816.5
1,000-1,9998551.05063.6
2,000-3,9995470.67775.5
4,000-7,9993500.41,0097.1
8,000-15,9991840.21,3639.6
16,000-31,9991370.22,43817.3
≥ 32,0001260.15,71140.4
All feedlots88,199100.014,132100.0

Pollen notes that feedlot cattle must be fed antibiotics and antacids to overcome digestive problems from eating corn rather than grass. Corn-fed cattle are prone to severe bloat, indigestion, and other conditions that can weaken their immune systems and make them susceptible to serious diseases. Thus, many are fed continuous low-level doses of antibiotics to keep them reasonably healthy. The corn diet damages their livers, but this is a trade-off acceptable to the beef industry because cow liver is not in high demand. Pollen's steer also received a hormone injection of synthetic estrogen to help him gain weight, a common and legal practice.

According to Pollen, the cattle on the feedlot lived amid a thick layer of manure during their entire stay, another reason that antibiotics are required for feedlot cattle. Generally, manure is not a concern until slaughtering time, when it is washed off the carcasses during processing. Pollen argues that this practice is not healthy for the people who will eat the beef or for the cattle living in this environment.

Ranchers use the feedlot system because it is much cheaper for them than finishing the cattle at the ranch. The price of beef is so low that profit margins on cattle are slim. Ranchers and farmers must cut costs wherever they can. Many ranchers sell their calves to corporations and companies running feedlots. Others retain ownership and pay rent to the feedlot during the finishing process.

Dairy Cattle

Dairy cattle are a valuable commodity because they produce milk that can be consumed as a drink or used to make other dairy products. According to the ERS, the average per capita consumption in the United States during 2004 was 21.2 gallons of milk, 31.3 pounds of cheese, and 26.4 pounds of frozen dairy products (mostly ice cream).

The USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service reports in Charts and Maps: Milk Production and Milk Cows (February 17, 2006, http://www.nass.usda.gov/Charts_and_Maps/Milk_Production_and_Milk_Cows/milkprod.asp) that dairy cows produced more than 175 trillion pounds of milk during 2005. The combination of factory farming, high-tech breeding, and modern medicine means that the average dairy cow produced three times as much milk in 2005 as did a cow in 1955. Milk production per cow increased by 19% between 1996 and 2005 alone. (See Figure 4.7.)

Even though some people assume that dairy cattle spend leisurely days in rolling fields of grass and are only occasionally milked, the reality is that dairy cows have become milk-producing machines. Most dairy cows live in small indoor stalls or are confined to large dirt pens called dry lots. To produce milk, the cows must have calves. Modern farmers keep dairy cows pregnant almost continuously, often through artificial insemination. They take the calves away from their mothers as soon as possible after birth to prevent the calves from drinking the valuable milk. Male calves and any cows that cease to produce milk are slaughtered for beef. Common health problems in dairy cows include mastitis (an udder infection) and lameness because of back and leg problems.

Many dairy cattle are given antibiotics and other drugs on a routine basis. One of the most controversial drugs is called bovine growth hormone (BGH). The Animal Protection Institute, in "Get the Facts: The Destructive Dairy Industry" (2007, http://www.api4animals.org/facts?p=373&more=1), indicates that BGH can increase by 25% the amount of milk that a cow can produce. Animal welfarists note that BGH enlarges cows' udders to such a degree that the cows suffer from spine and back problems and have difficulty keeping their udders from dragging in dirt and manure. The International Dairy Foods Association (November 2006, http://www.idfa.org/reg/biotech/rbst_idfa_position.cfm) states that BGH has been used in U.S. dairy herds since 1993 and that Americans have consumed billions of gallons of milk from BGH-supplemented cows. The IDFA reports that the milk has been deemed safe for human consumption "by the FDA, the World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the National Institutes of Health, the American Dietetic Association, Health Canada, and regulatory agencies in 50 countries." The use of BGH, which is also called bovine somatotropin, is banned in Europe and Canada because of its effects on cow health.

Another criticism of the factory farming of dairy cattle is that the cows spend long periods standing on hard surfaces. This includes concrete floors, metal gratings, and dirt-packed dry lots. Welfarists contend that this contributes to lameness problems in dairy cattle. Lameness is a major reason for cows to be culled (killed) during the raising process. Experts studying downed animals (those that cannot stand and walk because of injury or illness) arriving at slaughterhouses report that a large percentage of downers are dairy cows.

Veal is meat from young calves that are raised in a way that produces tender, light-colored flesh. This meat is highly prized for its pale color and delicate flavor. According to the American Veal Association (2004, http://www.vealfarm.com/industry-info/facts.asp), veal farmers purchase unwanted calves from the dairy industry (mostly male Holstein calves) and raise them to the desired weight.

The Cattlemen's Beef Board and National Cattlemen's Beef Association (2005, http://www.veal.org/Content/Veal101Veal.aspx) explains that there are three main types of veal:

  • Special-fed veal calves are fed a nutritionally complete milk supplement until they reach eighteen to twenty weeks of age and typically weigh from 400 to 450 pounds. The meat is ivory or creamy pink, with a firm, fine, and velvety texture. Approximately 85% of the veal consumed in the United States is special-fed veal. This is the veal industry's premium product.
  • Bob veal calves are fed milk. They usually weigh less than 150 pounds and are approximately three weeks old when marketed. The meat has a light-pink color and a soft texture.
  • Grain-fed veal calves are initially fed milk and then receive a diet of grain, hay, and nutrition formulas. The meat tends to be darker in color and has additional marbling and often visible fat. Grain-fed veal calves are usually marketed at five to six months of age and weigh from 450 to 600 pounds.

THE CONTROVERSY

Veal production is harshly criticized by both animal rights supporters and welfarists. They view the early separation of calves from their mothers and the extremely confined conditions under which the calves live as inhumane. Some calves are kept in very narrow stalls or boxes that prevent them from turning around and are allowed no exercise that would help them build muscles. Also, critics accuse producers of feeding the calves diets that are extremely low in iron to prevent the flesh from darkening. This results in anemic calves that suffer from health problems and stress brought on by their living conditions. The British government has banned the use of veal crates that do not allow a calf to turn around and requires that calves be fed a diet containing sufficient iron and fiber.

American veal producers defend the use of individual stalls to raise their calves. They point out that this method reduces the spread of disease by preventing interaction among the calves. Each calf receives its own feed and does not have to compete with others for food. Also, each calf can receive individual attention to its nutrition and health needs. The American Veal Association claims that the stalls are designed so that calves "can comfortably lay in a natural position, stand up, groom themselves and interact with their neighbors."

In November 2006 Arizona voters passed a measure banning the use of confining crates for veal calves. It was the first state ban of its kind.

CONSUMPTION OF VEAL

Figure 4.8 shows annual consumption data for veal on a per capita basis. Americans consumed only 0.41 pounds of veal per person during 2004, down from a high of 8.4 pounds per person in 1944.

Cattle Slaughter

Cattle killed at federally inspected slaughterhouses are required by law to be killed humanely. In most plants the preferred method is use of a stun gun. Cattle are directed single-file through chutes that lead to the stunner. As each animal passes by, the stunner shoots a stun bolt into the animal's forehead to render it unconscious.

The animal is then hoisted up by one rear leg to hang from a bleed rail. At that time, its throat is cut so that the blood can drain out. Federal law requires that no animal fall into the blood of other slaughtered animals. This is why bloodletting is performed while the animal is suspended in the air. Following bloodletting, the animal moves down the line to a number of processing stations where the tail and hocks are cut off, the belly is cut open, and the hide is removed.

SPECIALLY DESIGNED METHODS

Temple Grandin is a professor at Colorado State University and a renowned expert on cattle handling and slaughter. She maintains a comprehensive Web site full of useful information on this subject at http://www.grandin.com. Grandin designed the systems in use at most U.S. slaughterhouses and has written many guidance documents for the American Meat Institute.

Grandin suffers from autism and says that this allows her to see the world "in pictures," as animals see it. She has published many books and articles on the proper design of livestock chute systems. For example, chutes must be curved to trick the animals into thinking they are going back to where they came. The chutes must have high walls to keep the animals from seeing what is going on around them. Each animal should only see the rear end of the animal in front of it as it walks toward the stunner.

Grandin's recommendations are designed to keep cattle moving efficiently and peacefully. This has both economic and welfare benefits. Cattle that balk (refuse to move ahead or try to go back down a chute) hold up production. Also, animals that panic are believed to release stress chemicals that taint their meat. Therefore, it is in the best interest of producers that their cattle remain calm in the slaughterhouse. Maintaining quiet and calm also leads to less stress for the animals, which is of importance to animal welfarists.

Grandin says that she is often asked if animals entering the slaughterhouse know they are about to die. She believes that the animals do not suspect their fate, because if they did, they would all balk and panic. She reports that cattle will calmly walk into restraining devices covered with the blood of other cattle, as long as the previous cattle were also calm. However, cattle will refuse to approach a location in which a stressed animal has been killed. Grandin believes that animals that become agitated for several minutes release fear pheromones that other animals can smell.

Grandin (June 2006, http://www.grandin.com/welfare.audit.using.haccp.html) has developed an audit procedure with which slaughterhouses can be graded on how well they meet AMI guidelines. The audit procedure centers on five main performance categories that can be graded numerically:

  • Stunning proficiency (the number of cattle stunned correctly on the first try)
  • Insensibility on the bleed rail (the number of cattle that are still breathing, moving their eyes or blinking, making sounds, or trying to lift themselves up)
  • Electric prod usage (the number of cattle that are prodded to keep them moving and the manner in which the prodding is performed)
  • Slipping and falling cattle (the number of cattle that slip and fall while they are being moved through the plant)
  • Vocalizing cattle (the number of cattle that moo, bellow, or make some other noise during handling and stunning)

In addition, the auditor assesses how the plant handles nonambulatory animals (downers), the condition of flooring and pens, truck unloading and handling procedures, the presence of drinking water in the pens, problems with overcrowding, and the general health condition of the cattle at the plant.

Grandin reports in "Survey of Stunning and Handling in Federally Inspected Beef, Veal, Pork, and Sheep Slaughter Plants (January 7, 1997, http://www.grandin.com/survey/usdarpt.html), an audit she did for the USDA in 1996 of ten federally inspected slaughterhouses in various states, that only three of the plants were able to stun at least 95% of the cattle with a single shot. She also describes problems with poor equipment maintenance, lack of management supervision, excessive use of electric prods, transport of downed animals with forklifts, and other such practices.

Grandin notes in "Corporations Can Be Agents of Great Improvements in Animal Welfare and Food Safety and the Need for Minimum Decent Standards" (April 4, 2001, http://www.grandin.com/welfare/corporation.agents.html) that in 1999 she was hired by McDonald's Corporation to audit the company's beef and pork suppliers for their compliance with the standards. She states that compliance greatly improved after McDonald's fired a supplier that failed the audit. For example, 90% of the plants audited after that firing were able to stun at least 95% of the cattle with a single shot. In addition, the use of electric prods was reduced or eliminated, and most abusive behavior by employees stopped.

Between 2001 and 2005 Grandin oversaw audits conducted for restaurants at dozens of beef and pork plants. The most recent audit findings are in the "2005 Restaurant Animal Welfare Audits of Federally Inspected Beef and Pork Slaughter Plants" (April 2, 2006, http://www.grandin.com/survey/2005.restaurant.audits.html). She reports that all the beef plants rendered 100% of their cattle insensible before the bleedline. More than half of the plants (55%) stunned 99% to 100% of their cattle on the first shot. The remaining plants stunned 95% to 98% on the first shot. Nearly a third of the beef plants received an "excellent" rating for their ability to move cattle through the plant using electric cattle rods on less than 5% of the cattle. Ten plants received an "acceptable" rating in this category, and one plant had a "very bad 61% electric prod score."

Grandin notes that better stunning technology and equipment maintenance have led to continuous improvements in the audits she has conducted over the years. She warns plants that they must have "zero tolerance" for hoisting, skinning, or cutting any animal showing any obvious signs of sensibility or even partial return to sensibility after stunning.

PROBLEMS WITH THE PROCESS?

Stories in the media since the late 1990s have exposed some problems with slaughterhouse procedures. In "'They Die Piece by Piece': In Overtaxed Plants, Humane Treatment of Cattle Is Often a Battle Lost" (Washington Post, April 10, 2001), Joby Warrick analyzed USDA records and conducted interviews with current and former slaughterhouse workers and federal inspectors. The workers, who made about $9 an hour, claimed to have seen many conscious cattle moving down the bleed rail.

A worker responsible for cutting off the cattle's hocks reported that dozens of conscious animals reached his station each day. He said the animals were blinking, moving, looking around, and making noises. Other workers also reported having to cut into living cattle. Workers in charge of stunning complained that the line moved so fast that they did not have time to do their job properly.

Warrick notes that the USDA had relaxed its oversight of slaughtering plants since 1998 and did not track the number of humane slaughter violations that occur each year. A records review, however, showed that inspectors found 527 violations in 1996 – 1997, including incidents in which "live animals were cut, skinned, or scalded."

Warrick reports that footage from hidden cameras at slaughterhouses show blinking cattle hanging from bleed rails. Other cattle twist, turn, and arch their backs as if trying to pull themselves upright. Footage also shows squealing hogs being lowered into the scalding water baths that are designed to soften the hides of dead animals. Industry officials claim that the videotaped incidents were staged by disgruntled employees and that unconscious animals kick and twitch by reflex.

Live animals on the bleed rail are a danger to line workers. According to Warrick, many workers are kicked by the animals and suffer broken bones and teeth. Although the line is supposed to be stopped when a conscious animal is detected, workers said that this does not happen.

Animal welfare activists say that the allegations made by Warrick are not unusual. They blame many of the problems on the extremely fast line speed at slaughterhouses and the use of low-paid workers. According to Warrick, most plants process around four hundred animals per hour. This figure has increased eightfold since the early 1900s.

Another major concern of welfarists relates to the problem of downed animals. Downed animals are primarily dairy cattle that collapse from illness, injury, or other causes. They are often tossed alive onto trash heaps, or dragged by chains or pushed by forklifts around stockyards and slaughterhouses. Animal welfare organizations consider processing of these animals inhumane and have tried unsuccessfully since the 1990s to achieve legislation called the Downed Animal Protection Act, which would require that critically ill or injured farm animals be humanely euthanized at the stockyards. In December 2003 a downer cow in Washington State tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. This is an extremely serious disease in cattle. It has been linked to a similar fatal disease in humans believed to have eaten beef contaminated with BSE. The USDA promptly announced a ban on the processing of downer cattle for human consumption. However, the audit report Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Surveillance Program (January 2006, http://www.usda.gov/oig/webdocs/50601-10-KC.pdf) by the USDA inspector general reports that twenty-nine downer cattle were slaughtered at two plants audited during fiscal year 2004.

RITUAL SLAUGHTER

The Humane Methods of Slaughter Act has exceptions for ritual slaughter — that is, slaughter conducted according to religious dictates. Ritual slaughter is practiced by some orthodox Jews and Muslims. Their teachings require that animals killed for food be moving and healthy when they are killed by having their throats slit. This was originally intended to ensure that sick animals were not eaten by humans. Meat from animals killed in this manner is said to be kosher in Jewish tradition and Halal in Muslim tradition. Regarding ritual slaughter, the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act does require "simultaneous and instantaneous" cutting of the throat arteries "with a sharp instrument" to render the animal insensible (unconscious).

Animal welfarists complain that strict interpretation of the directives for ritual slaughter means that cattle are not stunned before being bled out. They may be jerked up to the bleed rail by a hind leg while still fully conscious. The jerking action can break the leg and tear apart joints, causing them severe pain. Their thrashing makes it more difficult for the cutter to cleanly cut their throats, which prolongs the entire process.

There are upright restraining devices that hold animals more humanely while their throats are being cut. The AMI strongly recommends the use of these devices, both for the welfare of the animals and the safety of the plant workers. Grandin and Gary C. Smith report in "Animal Welfare and Humane Slaughter" (November 2004, http://www.grandin.com/references/humane.slaughter.html) that throat cutting must be done precisely with a long, razor-sharp knife to induce "near-immediate collapse." Otherwise, the animal can remain conscious for more than a minute. Animals that struggle against their restraints or become agitated stay conscious the longest.

Singer states in Animal Liberation that critics of ritual slaughter are often accused of being racist or anti-Semitic. He points out that parts of ritually killed animals wind up on supermarket shelves and are purchased by people who may not be aware of how the animal was killed. This is because Jewish law requires the removal of the lymph nodes and sciatic nerve from cattle. Singer says that this is difficult to do efficiently on the hindquarters of cattle, so often only the front portion is sold as kosher. The hindquarters are processed and sold in usual commercial markets.

Donald G. McNeil Jr. reports in "Inquiry Finds Lax Federal Inspections at Kosher Meat Plant" (New York Times, March 10, 2006) on an animal welfare controversy involving the nation's largest kosher slaughterhouse in Postville, Iowa. In 2004 an undercover investigator for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) captured video of cattle not being rendered unconscious by throat slitting. However, workers immediately used hooks to pull out the trachea and esophagus of each animal. This practice vastly speeds up the bleeding process. The video shows steers thrashing about for up to three minutes before passing out. According to the article the video's release spurred outrage among Jewish organizations around the world — outrage at PETA for allegedly being "anti-Semitic" and at the processing plant for causing animal suffering. The plant has reportedly altered its slaughtering procedures since the issue became public.

A resulting six-month investigation by the USDA found that its inspectors at the plant knew that the practice was going on but ignored it because they assumed the USDA had no say over ritual slaughter techniques. In addition, the inspectors had accepted free gifts of meat from employees at the slaughter plant. In response, the agency suspended one of the inspectors for two weeks and issued warning letters to two other inspectors. McNeil reports that PETA learned about the USDA investigation only after PETA obtained a copy of the USDA inspector general's report under the Freedom of Information Act.


Facts – Farm Animals

Each day approximately 160 million farm animals throughout the world are transported to a slaughterhouse.
– Farm Animal Rights Movement

The number of pigs reared for food each year in the United Kingdom is 10 million in the United States is 110 million in Europe excluding the United Kingdom is 300 million, and in China is 680 million.
– Compassion in World Farming

An average person living in a developed country who is not a vegetarian or vegan will consume approximately 7,000 animals during his or her lifetime.
– Vegetarian Calculator

Global meat production is responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than all of the trains, cars and airplanes in the world combined.
– United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

Approximately 250,000 bulls are killed in bullfights throughout the world each year.
– Humane Society International

More than nine billion farm animals were slaughtered in the United States last year.
– Humane Society of the United States

Approximately 25 million farm animals are slaughtered each day in the United States.
– Mercy for Animals

Approximately nine percent — more than 850 million — of the animals reared for food in the United States each year never make it to the slaughterhouse because they have already died from stress-induced disease or injury.
– Farm Animal Rights Movement

About nine million cows are being used for milk production in the United States at any given time.
– American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

In the United States, an estimated 2.2 million sheep and lambs and 1.5 million goats are slaughtered for meat every year. Sheep used for meat in the country are typically slaughtered when they are only six to eight months old because consumers prefer lamb.
– Farm Sanctuary

Approximately 450,000 calves are reared for veal in the United States each year.
– Compassion in World Farming

United States farm law requires most animals but not birds to be rendered insensible to pain before being slaughtered.
– Farm Sanctuary

Approximately 260 million male chicks are killed upon hatching in the United States each year — they will not lay eggs or be used for meat and therefore have no economic value.
– Farm Sanctuary

More than 400,000 animals died in fires on factory farms in the United States last year.
– Humane Society of the United States

Approximately 80,000 horses are trucked from the United States to Mexico or Canada to be slaughtered for human consumption each year.
– American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

An average of 24 horses die each week on racetracks in the United States.
– CompassionWorks International

Farming and ranching are responsible for 68 percent of all species endangerment in the United States.
– United States Department of Agriculture

More than 330 million rabbits are farmed in tiny, barren cages across Europe each year.
– Compassion in World Farming

More than one billion rabbits are killed for their fur each year.
– People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Eighteen red foxes are killed to make one fox fur coat. Fifty-five minks are killed to make one mink fur coat.
– Compassionate Clothing Coalition

There are approximately 6,000 fur farms in the European Union.
– Four Paws

Approximately three million farm animals die while being transported in Canada every year.
– Canadian Food Inspection Agency

There are more than 17,000 dog-meat farms in South Korea.
– Humane Society of the United States

More than 10,000 bears are being kept on bile farms in China.
– Animals Asia Foundation

Approximately 3,000 silkworms are killed for every pound of silk produced.
– People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Most farm animals reared for meat are slaughtered while still less than one year old.

“Factory farm operators believe that the less Americans know about what goes on behind their closed doors, the better for the industry. That’s because the animals sent through those factories often endure an unimaginable amount of mistreatment and abuse."

- New York Times Editorial Board

There are many stores that sell only clothing not made with fur, leather or other animal products.

Animal Matters | 223 West 38 Street , New York , NY 10018 USA | Phone : 2128199604

Loose farm animals in NYC: A brief history

A bull escaped in Queens on Feb. 21, 2017. It was one of several farm animals to get loose in the city over the years. Photo Credit: Lianna Tarantin

Three goats, two sheep and a cow have all been rescued in the city this month, but they’re just the latest in a string of farm animals breaking loose in the five boroughs.

Animals that are definitely not house pets have been spotted on highways, on sidewalks and even on subway tracks.

Though it’s not always clear exactly where the animals come from, they are often escaping slaughterhouses, police have said.

Here’s a brief history of some of the farm animals running amok in the city.

A goat was found by teenagers near the Bronx Zoo, according to reports. After it was brought to Animal Care Centers of NYC by police, it was transferred to Farm Sanctuary in upstate Watkins Glen, ACC said.

A soaking wet sheep was found tied to a tree in Coney Island Creek Park in Brooklyn, the sanctuary that rescued him said. The animal was taken to Cornell University Nemo Farm Animal Hospital, representatives of Farm Sanctuary said.

The sheep was named Officer Cal, after one of the NYPD officers who rescued him from the park.

A loose calf was caught on the Major Deegan Expressway near Exit 6 in Highbridge, the Bronx, police said. The animal was named after the expressway and taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue in Wantage, New Jersey. The calf, renamed Kristen, died of kidney failure on March 22, according to the sanctuary.

The same day the calf was rescued from the Major Deegan, a goat was found by construction workers after it escaped a Bronx slaughterhouse, Farm Sanctuary said. The workers brought the animal, later named Alondra, to Animal Care Centers of NYC and it was picked up by Tracey Stewart, Jon Stewart’s wife, who brought her to Farm Sanctuary.

Another goat was found roaming in the Bronx just days before Alondra, according to the Animal Care Centers of NYC. The NYPD caught the animal and it was taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue.

A lamb, later named Petunia, was spotted running on the eastbound lanes of the Gowanus Expressway in Brooklyn, the NYPD said. The animal was rescued and taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue.

A pair of goats was caught grazing along N train tracks in Borough Park. The two “very baaaaad boys” were corralled by the MTA and the NYPD. Jon Stewart picked up the animals later and transferred them to Farm Sanctuary.

A brown calf was captured in the fields of Prospect Park Parade Ground after running through the streets of Brooklyn. The calf ran into a 2-year-old girl in a stroller, causing her to fall out and cut her lip, police said at the time.

The animal was taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue.

A black bull ran nearly two miles away from the slaughterhouse it escaped from in Queens. The animal died after it was corralled by police in the yard of a home in South Jamaica.

A black and white steer escaped a truck that was going to take it to a slaughterhouse in Queens. The NYPD caught the animal near York College in Jamaica, and it was picked up by Jon Stewart and his wife, who took it to Farm Sanctuary.

A black and white cow, named Freddie, escaped from a slaughterhouse in Queens and was caught in a parking garage in Jamaica. It was taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue.

A goat ran away from its home in Queens, the Daily News reported. After almost being hit by a car, it was caught by police and returned to the owner, according to the report.


Method for Gene Transfer in Animals

The most common method for producing transgenic animals is gene transfer by DNA microinjection, which involves the following steps:

DNA containing the desired transgene is identified and cloned (copied tens of thousands of times in bacteria) before insertion into the animal host.

The host animals (cows, pigs, or sheep) are induced to superovulate and their eggs are collected.

The eggs are fertilized in a laboratory dish.

Using a fine, hollow needle, a solution of DNA containing the transgene is injected into the male pronucleus of the fertilized egg (the nucleus of the sperm cell that entered the egg) before it fuses with the female pronucleus.

The transgenic embryos are grown in cell culture and then implanted into the uterus of a surrogate mother, where they complete their development.

Screening is performed to determine which of the offspring have inherited the transgene. The main drawback of DNA microinjection is its low success rate: only between 1 and 4 percent of microinjected eggs result in the live birth of a sheep, goat, or cow containing the transgene, and about 80 to 90 percent of transgenic embryos die during early development. 11


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