Novi

Mozaik za pse

Mozaik za pse


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Pas čuvar

Korištenje pasa kao čuvara dobro je poznato od davnina. Rimljani su stavljali mozaike (Cave canem mozaici) na ulazu u kuće kako bi upozorili posjetitelje i uljeze na prisutnost opasnih pasa na imanju. [4]

Jedan od prvih tipova pasa koji su se koristili kao čuvari bili su predaci tipa mastifa iz skupine poznatih kao psi čuvari stoke koji su štitili stoku od velikih grabežljivaca poput vukova, medvjeda i leoparda. [5] Orthrus je poznati primjer psa čuvara stoke iz grčke mitologije poznat po čuvanju Geryonove crvene stoke.

Neki drevni psi čuvari u urbanim područjima, poput izumrlih zavoja, danju su bili okovani, a noću pušteni [6] radi zaštite posjeda, logora i sela.

I psi čuvari i čuvari glasno laju kako bi upozorili svoje vlasnike na prisutnost uljeza i uplašili uljeza. [7] Funkcija čuvara ovdje prestaje, pas čuvar je tada sposoban napasti i/ili obuzdati uljeza.

Psi čuvari stoke često su dovoljno veliki (100-200 lbs.) I dovoljno jaki da napadaju i tjeraju stočne grabežljivce. [5] Neke manje pasmine (kao što su Keeshonds i tibetanski terijeri) izvrsni su čuvari, ali ne i psi čuvari, jer glasno laju kako bi upozorili svoje gospodare na uljeze, ali su fizički mali i ne podliježu asertivnom ponašanju. Psi čuvari lajat će kako bi upozorili svog gospodara i upozorili životinjsku ili ljudsku prijetnju koja se približava prije nego što presretnu prijestupnika. Oni se razlikuju od manjih čuvara po tome što ne nastavljaju lajati nego poduzimaju mjere. Konkretno, psi čuvari stoke kao što je Kangal koriste glasne zvukove alarma kao prvu liniju obrane od pretpostavljenih prijetnji ako one ne odvraćaju opaženog neprijatelja (bilo od ljudskih ili životinjskih predatora), koriste se drugi prikazi poput blefiranja i punjenja. Za čuvare stoke, proaktivni oblici obrane, poput ugriza, koriste se samo ako svi drugi oblici odvraćanja ne uspiju.

Sljedeće pasmine najbolje su u lajanju pasa: [8]

Ako rizik dolazi od ljudskih uljeza, prikladnog psa možete jednostavno dresirati da bude agresivan prema neprepoznatim ljudima, a zatim ga privezati ili zatvoriti bez nadzora u području koje vlasnik želi zaštititi kad nije u blizini (primjerice noću) stereotipnog " smeće pas "uobičajen je primjer za to. Ako je svrha psa zaštita od ljudskih uljeza nakon sumraka, veliki pas tamne boje u mračnoj kući (isključena svjetla) dao bi psu prednost u odnosu na provalnika. [9]

Tvrdi se da su ženski psi skloni boljem osobnom čuvaru od mužjaka, zbog majčinskog instinkta, ali se smatra da su mužjaci bolji za čuvanje imovine zbog svog većeg teritorijalnog instinkta. To može biti općenito istina, ali svi su psi pojedinci. [10]

Mnogi trenutno istaknuti psi čuvari počeli su kao farme opće namjene, ali su se postupno razvili u pasmine čuvara. Neke pasmine pasa, poput dobermana i brazilskog doga, od početka su pažljivo razvijene za stražu. [11] [12]

Psi čuvari nisu ograničeni samo na mastife. Ostali psi, poput nekih pastirskih pasa, špica, goveda i nekih ulova, također su odlični psi čuvari, a mogu biti korisni i kao višenamjenski psi, ponašaju se kao napadni psi, psi za osobnu zaštitu, policijski psi, sportski psi poput pasa shutzhund, itd.

Pasmine pasa čuvara su teritorijalne, nesklone strancima, dominantne, zaštitničke i odane obitelji. Na primjer, Fila Brasileiro slovi kao vrlo netolerantna prema strancima i gostima prema kući i imanju. Ostali žestoki psi čuvari uključuju pasmine ovčarstva i druge vrste pasa čuvara, poput Boerboela.

Neke pasmine koje čine izvrsne čuvare češće imaju usvojene posebne zakone o pasmini koji ih zabranjuju u nekim zajednicama i cijelim zemljama. [13]

Zakoni o vlasništvu i upotrebi pasa čuvara razlikuju se od zemlje do zemlje. [14] [15] [1] U Engleskoj su glavni zakoni koji se odnose na korištenje pasa čuvara u komercijalnim prostorijama sadržani u Zakonu o psima čuvarima iz 1975. godine. Zakon određuje zahtjeve uzgajivačnica i potrebu za postavljanjem znakova upozorenja pasa čuvara na ulazu u mjesta. [16]


Renesanse

Tijekom razdoblja renesanse, psi su postali pristupačni srednjoj klasi umjesto samo aristokraciji. Međutim, nisu svi psi vodili razmažen način života. Dok su neki psi nosili obojene ogrlice, borbeni psi koji su se koristili kao mamac za sport nosili su ogrlice sa šiljcima. Povodci su se tradicionalno držali u lijevoj ruci, ostavljajući desnu slobodu da muškarci nose lovačku pušku. Ogrlice sa katanac bile su uobičajene, a vlasnici su imali ključeve za dokaz o vlasništvu. Engleski zavoji, psi vezani danju kako ne bi mogli zalutati, noću su puštani radi zaštite imovine.


6 stvari koje (vjerojatno) niste znali o životinjama u starom Rimu

Pisanje za Povijest Extra, Dr. Iain Ferris istražuje uloge životinja u starom rimskom društvu - od kojih su se životinje držale kao kućni ljubimci, do egzotičnih vrsta uvezenih životinja koje su korištene kao stočna hrana za zabavu u krvavim rimskim arenama ...

Moja knjiga analizira mjesto i ulogu životinja u starom rimskom društvu te njihovo značenje i veliki značaj u kulturnom smislu. Najočiglednije, na većini rimskih farmi postojale bi radne životinje, a životinje su se obično držale kao kućni ljubimci. Meso i riba bili su vrlo važni sastojci u rimskom kuharstvu. Životinje su se također često koristile u ratovanju u rimsko doba. Izvanredno klanje životinja u rimskoj areni radi zabave i organiziranog lova neizbježno je snažno nadvijalo moju radnu sobu. Opet se žrtvovanje životinja smatralo središnjim dijelom prakse i obreda rimske religije.

Naravno, na rimskom selu bilo je životinja, divljih i uzgojenih, ali nije došlo do potpunog rascjepa između grada i sela. U gradovima su životinje bile uvijek prisutne, pružajući neku vrstu podmuklog toka rimskog urbanog života: od gnjida u kosi stvorenja i crijevnih crva, do komaraca u močvarama u Rimu i okolici, od tripsa [malih insekata] u mljevenom zrnu do miševa u kuhinjama od ptica prolaznika u vrtovima, do olujnih, oportunističkih lisica u stražnjim uličicama kuća i na rubovima gradova. Ubacite pse čuvare i druge radne životinje i kućne ljubimce u smjesu, a onda se odjednom čini da je rimski grad bio prirodni domaćin životinjskom životu.

Ptice u kavezima bile su popularni kućni ljubimci

Postoji znatna količina dokaza o držanju životinja kao kućnih ljubimaca u rimskom svijetu, a najčešće posvjedočeni kućni ljubimci u rimskom svijetu bile su ptice u kavezima, osobito omiljene kod Rimljanki.

Popularnost ptica u kavezima jasno je pokazana u latinskoj ljubavnoj poeziji. Ukupno je procijenjeno da u rimskoj poeziji postoji preko 700 pojedinačnih referenci na ptice i divlje i pitome, većina na divlje vrste. Hvatanje ptica često se koristilo kao metafora za ljudsku potragu i zavođenje, ptice u kavezu za 'zarobljenog' ljubavnika, a umiruće ili mrtve ptice za uvenuće ljubavi ili prekid afere. Možda nema poznatijeg ljubimca iz antičkog svijeta od lezbijskog kućnog ljubimca ‘vrapca’, čiji je život i smrt opisao pjesnik Katul u dvije pjesme. U dva od onih što su znanstvenicima poznati kao lezbijske pjesme, Catullus prikazuje sliku rimske matrone koja se igra sa svojom pticom kao aktivnost istiskivanja iz strastvenog razmišljanja o svom ljubavniku. Vjerojatno je dotični ‘vrabac’ zapravo plavi kameni drozd, a prolaznik solitarij, ukrasnija i pitomija ptica od običnog vrapca. Međutim, ako se nađu kao napušteni mladić, vrapci se mogu ukrotiti i pripitomiti.

Čini se da su domaće ptice u kavezima vrlo specifično rimski kulturni fenomen, svojevrsni kulturni artefakt. Ptice u kavezima nisu posebno zastupljene ni u grčkoj ni u egipatskoj kulturi pa je za to potrebno tražiti objašnjenje. Čuvanje ptica može se smatrati dijelom mnogo šireg fenomena izlaganja i stjecanja luksuzne robe. Međutim, ne bi se činilo da je držanje ptica u kavezu bilo isključivo aristokratski interes, ali većina dokaza odnosi se na ovu klasu. Čuvanje ptica u kavezima ili volijerama bila je moda, dio arene natjecanja, od vremena kasne republike naovamo do carskih vremena, koja je obuhvaćala prikupljanje grčkih kipova, arhitektonsku veličanstvenost i dobročinstvo, dizajn i postavljanje velikih vrtove i stvaranje zvjerinjaka, volijera i ribnjaka.

Neki su kućni ljubimci žrtvovani smrću svojih vlasnika

Možda najneobičnija suvremena referenca o čuvanju kućnih ljubimaca u rimsko doba je pismo koje je Plinije Mlađi 104. godine poslije Krista napisao svom prijatelju Attiusu Clemensu, opisujući nasilne i uznemirujuće događaje koji su se dogodili na sprovodu sina tinejdžera Marka Akvilija Regula .

Kaže se da je Regulus, u svojoj histeričnoj tuzi, žrtvom žrtve žrtvovao žrtvene životinje i ptice svog sina, klajući dva galska ponija i brojne pse, kao i slavuje, papige i kos. Broj kućnih ljubimaca koje čuva Regulusov sin, ili vjerojatno ispravnije o njima brinu robovi u ime sina, svjedoči o bogatstvu i statusu njegova oca, ili bi se bolje činilo njegovim težnjama prema visokom društvenom statusu i njegovom razmetljivom popuštanju sinu .

Regulusov naizgled nedostatak skrupula u ubijanju kućnih ljubimaca možda nije odražavao ludilo neizrecive tuge, već hladnoću, proračunatu mahinaciju spletkara, kako bi po svoj prilici skrenuo pozornost na sebe i zadobio simpatije javnosti.

Psi bi bili pripitomljeni, i kao psi čuvari i kao kućni ljubimci

U gradovima u rimsko doba veliki bi se psi držali uglavnom kao psi čuvari, ali to ne znači nužno da ih njihovi vlasnici nisu istovremeno smatrali i kućnim ljubimcima. Istu dvostruku ulogu mogli su imati i lovački psi i psi koji se koriste za čuvanje životinja. Čini se da se ne čini da je isti društveni krug uključen u držanje pasa kao kućnih ljubimaca kao u držanju ptica u Rimu i Italiji.

Postoji niz crno-bijelih mozaika s pragovima iz kuća u Pompejima koji prikazuju pse čuvare/pse kućne ljubimce, uključujući najpoznatiji primjer: Špilja Canem [čuvajte se psa] pločnik iz Kuće tragičnog pjesnika, koji je mojoj knjizi dao ime. Veliki tamnoputi crni pas prikazan tamo, s bijelim na udovima i glavi, okovan je lancima, ali uhvaćen je u lajanju i pucanju prema nekome na vratima. Još jedan okovan pas na mozaiku štiti Kuću Pakija Prokulusa, dok se pas s ogrlicom na čičak učvršćen užetom pojavljuje na dijelu pločnika koji je sada izložen u Arheološkom muzeju u Napulju.

Četvrti pompejski pas mozaik dolazi iz kuće Caecilius Iucundus, iako u ovom slučaju pas leži sklupčan i spava. Pažljivi pas čuvar, koji je sjeo spreman na zglobove, također je naslikan na stupu na ulazu u pekaru Sotericus. Pas leži spavajući u prometnoj radnji za obradu metala na reljefu iz grada. Ako projiciramo uobičajenu upotrebu pasa čuvara u Pompejima kako bismo pokrili njihovu uporabu u Rimu te u gradovima diljem Rimskog carstva, onda se može tvrditi da su psi odigrali ključnu i iznimno važnu ulogu u sigurnosti kućanstva i grada u nedostatku u to vrijeme organizirane policijske snage.

Ostaci psa pronađeni su tijekom iskopavanja Pompeja

Naravno, ne možemo napustiti temu pasa u Pompejima bez spominjanja skeletnih ostataka pasa koji su godinama iskopavani na tom mjestu, a posebno vrlo dobro poznate gipsane ploče od umirućeg psa pronađene tijekom iskopavanja 1874. godine u Kući Marcus Vesonius Primus. Jadno stvorenje, sputano brončanom ogrlicom na povodcu, leži na leđima, udvostručeno u očitoj agoniji, nogu u zraku dok se nesumnjivo grčilo na tlu hvatajući zrak u samrtnim bolovima.

Ovo je jadna relikvija tragedije koja je zahvatila Pompeje 79. godine poslije Krista i ubila njezine ljudske stanovnike, kao i kućne ljubimce i stanovnike. Daljnji skeletni ostaci pasa zabilježeni su na brojnim drugim mjestima unutar Pompeja, od kojih bi najzanimljivije bile kosti velikog psa koji leži na boku, zatvoren unutar Kuće Menander. Čini se da je stvorenje preživjelo pokopavanje pepelom, ali bi nažalost tada umrlo od gušenja.

Rimski kipovi pasa, nadgrobni spomenici kućnih ljubimaca, natpisi ili natpisi s imenima pasa i prikazi pasa na pogrebnim spomenicima njihovih vlasnika javljaju se u dovoljno velikom broju da sugeriraju da su u to vrijeme bili popularni kućni ljubimci. Pasmine pasa uključuju ogromne molosijske pse, pse poput irskih vučjih pasa, pasa hrtova ili lurchera, manje malteške pse poput pasa i male krilce.

Pripitomljene mačke došle su u Rim iz starog Egipta

Općenito je prihvaćeno da su mačke prvi put pripitomljene u Egiptu i Mezopotamiji te da bi u Europu došle trgovinom ili pratećim putnicima u Rim iz tih regija.

U Pompejima je broj mačjih kostiju iz iskopanih naslaga zaista vrlo mali - doslovno šačica - i nema mačaka među odlivcima stvorenja ubijenih u gradu. Pretpostavlja se da u ovom provincijskom gradu prije 79. godine poslije Krista još nije postojala moda za držanje mačaka kao kućnih ljubimaca, iako je to možda već započelo u Rimu. Svakako, mnogo veći broj kostiju mačaka nalazi se u kasnijim arheološkim nalazištima u rimskom Napulju. Pa ipak, do sredine do kraja 4. stoljeća poslije Krista, prisutnost mačjih kostiju sa iskopanih mjesta u cijelom carstvu pokazuje koliko su mačke postale uobičajene.

Baš kao i sa psima čuvarima i lovačkim psima, možda je bio slučaj da su Rimljani mačke smatrali uglavnom ubojicama miševa i štakora u kućama, trgovinama i javnim zgradama, te da su ih smatrali kućnim ljubimcima kao sekundarnu obzir.

Iako iz natpisa znamo imena mnogih kućnih ljubimaca iz rimskog razdoblja, koliko mi je poznato, nije poznato niti jedno ime mačke, što možda ukazuje na njihovu popularnost kao kućnih ljubimaca u to vrijeme. Slikovni prikazi mačaka u kućnim uvjetima relativno su rijetki. Kad se to dogodi, općenito se spominje mačji prirodni lovački instinkt, a ne njezine miroljubivije i ljubaznije osobine. Možda najpoznatija od ovih slika pojavljuje se na mozaičnom pločniku iz Santa Maria Capua Vetere (sada u Arheološkom muzeju u Napulju) i poprima oblik mačke koja vreba na sve četiri u podnožju kupališta za ptice ili fontane. Sikće na plijen, dvije papige i golubicu, s jednom kandžom ispruženom šapom ispruženom kao da je spremna krenuti u napad.

Još jedna dobro poznata mozaična ploča iz Kuće Fauna u Pompejima nosi prikaz mačke koja u ustima drži mrtvu pticu divljač, možda prepelicu. Ispod scene s mačkom nalaze se dvije patke, druge ptice i plodovi mora.

Životinje su korištene u areni kao način da bogati i moćni Rim pokažu svoje bogatstvo

U potpunoj suprotnosti s dokazima o rimskom držanju kućnih ljubimaca dokaz je zapanjujuće okrutnosti životinjskih naočala u areni za koje se čini da su počele u Rimu u 3. stoljeću prije Krista.

Mnoge rane predstave u areni bile su jednostavno prikazivanje egzotičnih životinja za široku javnost, omogućujući im da vide stvorenja koja bi inače u to vrijeme mogli vidjeti samo njihovi elitni suvremenici i oni rimski aristokrati koji su svoje bogatstvo i veze iskoristili za zalihe svojih vivaria, ili ograđenim prostorima za životinje, u Rimu i okolici. Egzotične životinje poput slonova ponekad su bile uvježbane za ples, hodanje po užadi ili pokupljanje predmeta, prema Pliniju Starijem i drugim drevnim piscima.

Izložbe životinja koje uključuju nasilje i borbu, poznate Rimljanima kao venationes ili lovi, vjerojatno započeli 186. godine prije Krista kada su lavovi i leopardi predstavljeni u emisiji koju je sponzorirao Marcus Fulvus Nobilior. Ne znaju se jesu li se životinje ovom prilikom međusobno borile ili su se borile protiv ljudi. Svakako, izgledalo bi tako krvavo venatio emisije razvijene iz kulture gladijatorskih naočala. Posljednje snimljeno venationes u Rimu se dogodilo čak 523. godine.

Sponzorstvo javnih gladijatorskih i izložbi životinja postalo je način za bogate i moćne Rime da pokažu svoje bogatstvo i poboljšaju svoj status, utjecaj i moć. Sponzorstvo je postalo središte političke konkurencije u kasnoj Republici i postalo je aspekt rimske imperijalne veličine. U njegovom Res Gestae, kvantificirano opravdanje njegove vladavine i postignuća, prvi car August ponosno je tvrdio da je u 26 venationes koji je održan tijekom njegove vladavine, ukupno je ubijeno 3.500 afričkih životinja, što je postavilo visoku ljestvicu za one careve koji su uslijedili.

Kad se rimski pjesnik Juvenal požalio na političku apatiju svojih sugrađana s kraja 1. i početka 2. stoljeća poslije Krista i njihov propust da reagiraju protiv nerazumnog ili ekscentričnog ponašanja autokratskih careva, skovao je poznatu frazu koja će odjeknuti godinama. Ti su građani žudjeli i bili zadovoljni panem et circenses - kruh i cirkusi - napisao je.

Mnogi su carevi također otkrili da je pružanje masovne zabave i povremena javna distribucija besplatnog žita lako skrenulo kritičku pozornost s negativnijih aspekata njihove vladavine. Omogućavanje takvih naočala postalo je nužna strategija za učiniti carsku moć vidljivom u Rimu.

Povijest životinja u rimsko doba, poput one prikazane u mojoj knjizi, nije paralelna s poviješću rimskog imperijalizma ili rimske kulture, već je dio iste studije, i svakako bi trebala biti. Knjiga predlaže način razumijevanja drevne rimske kulture kroz analizu odnosa društva sa životinjama. Ako su negativni odnosi između Rimljana i životinja rezultirali nekim oblikom psihičke štete, barem se moj izvještaj nadaje nečemu iz rasprave o njegovim nekada živim subjektima, gotovo o njihovom samom mesu, koži i dahu, i osvrće se na to kako su utkani u složeno tkivo povijesnog sjećanja koje je činilo rimsku kulturu, tako da bi te životinje mogle ponovno živjeti konceptualno za nas razmatranjem njihovog postojanja.

Dr Iain Ferris je autor knjige Cave Canem: Životinje i rimsko društvo (Amberley Publishing, veljača 2018. Tvrd povez, 20 kn).

Ovaj je članak prvi put objavila History Extra u ožujku 2018.


Drevni mozaik “Čuvajte se psećeg znaka#8221 pronađen prije više od 2000 godina

To pokazuje da se neke stvari o vlasništvu pasa zapravo nisu promijenile.

Svi znamo da su psi stoljećima kao kućni ljubimci. Postoji razlog zašto ih nazivaju čovjekovim najboljim prijateljem, to je zato što su uz nas tisućljećima. Naši su psi uvijek bili naši najvjerniji prijatelji i najvatreniji zaštitnici. Postoji i jedan znak iz Pompeja u Italiji, koji pokazuje da se neke stvari o vlasništvu pasa zapravo nisu promijenile.

Većina nas koji imamo pse mogli smo postaviti ili dva znaka oko svojih domova na kojima piše "Čuvaj se psa". To je prijateljski podsjetnik drugima da u svom dvorištu imamo velikog, lošeg psa. uđite na vlastitu odgovornost. I nevjerojatno, čini se da su stari Rimljani učinili istu stvar sa svojim božicama!

U možda najstarijem poznatom znaku "čuvaj se psa", ovaj mozaik iz Pompeje prikazuje sliku psa zastrašujućeg izgleda zajedno s upozorenjem, “Cave Canem. ” Vjeruje se da to dolazi od riječi "upozorenje" ”(Oprez) i“ pseći ”(pas). Popločana slika nalazi se u rimskoj kući u Pompejima poznatu kao Kuća tragičnog pjesnika. Datira otprilike u 2. stoljeće pr. Sama kuća poznata je po prekrasnim podovima od mozaika i freskama koje prilično razrađuju prikaz mitoloških prizora.

Kuću je prvi put otkrio arheolog Antonio Bonucci u studenom 1824. Od svog otkrića, Kuća tragičnog pjesnika ostala je fascinirana i za znanstvenike i za pisce tijekom godina. Stvarna veličina kuće nije ništa izvanredno. No ono što ga čini tako izvanrednim otkrićem su unutarnji ukrasi kojih nema samo u izobilju, ali su i neke od najbolje očuvanih fresaka i mozaika koji su izašli iz drevnih Pompeja.

Veličina doma i njegova unutarnja umjetnička djela naveli su mnoge ljude da nagađaju tko su vlasnici kuća i kakvi su im životi. Naravno, ne postoji način na koji se može učiniti mnogo osim nagađanja jer postoji vrlo malo podataka o obitelji – koja je više nego vjerojatno ubijena kada je Vezuv izbio 79. godine. No, jedno što možemo sa sigurnošću reći o njima je da su imali psa i da je tom psu trebao njegov vlastiti znak "čuvaj se psa"#8221.


Azawakh - afrički hrt

Ovaj članak je kratak pregled povijesti uzgoja Azawakha u Češkoj Republici u godinama kada je pasmina uvedena u Europu. Početak uzgoja azavaha u Europi nije bio lak. Azawakh kao pasmina bio je nepoznat, a prvi primjerci pasmine smatrani su Sloughisom te su kao takvi upisani u matičnu knjigu. Tadašnja Čehoslovačka nije bila iznimka.

Tradicija uzgoja azavaha u ovoj zemlji datira iz druge polovice sedamdesetih godina dvadesetog stoljeća. U to su vrijeme prvi primjerci pasmine uvezeni u Čehoslovačku iz tadašnje Jugoslavije, iz Harris al Sahra uzgajivačnica gospođe Vesne Sekalec. Gospodin Pečar, jugoslavenski diplomat, koji je doveo prvi par azavaha iz Afrike, a kasnije i gospođa Sekalec, više je puta sudjelovao na međunarodnim izložbama pasa u gradu Brnu. Njihovi lijepi elegantni psi koji su se tada prikazivali kao Sloughis, mnogi su im se divili. Zasigurno je zanimljivo pročitati neke dokumente, koji su sada dio povijesti pasmine, te pogledati slike Azawaha iz tih godina, objavljene u kinološkom časopisu Pes přítel člověka, jedini takve vrste objavljen tada u Čehoslovačkoj. U vrijeme pisanja takvih članaka nije bilo gotovo nikakvih podataka koji se tiču ​​ne samo pasmine kao takve već i života i društva sahelijskih regija odakle dolazi Azawakh. Iz europske, prilično romantične perspektive, Touaregi su bili tajanstveno pleme i njihova kultura nije bila poznata. Unatoč nekim netočnostima u ovom aspektu, suvremene reference i članci koji se odnose na Azawakh predstavljaju vrijedno povijesno svjedočanstvo koje treba zapamtiti.

Gospođa Vesna Sekalec napisala je članak objavljen u češkom kinološkom časopisu Pes přítel člověka VII/1974, u kojoj je ovako opisala podrijetlo pasa gospodina Pečara:

& ldquo Priča je započela kada je gospodin Pečar bio veleposlanik u Gornjoj Volti i u Obali Bjelokosti. Vladin službenik dao mu je dar, neprocjenjiv mozaik star nekoliko stoljeća. Tamo se mogao vidjeti čudesni gonič. Gospodin i gospođa Pečar objasnili su kasnije: & ldquoLjepota psa bila je izvanredna. Zaljubili smo se u nju na prvi pogled. Bili smo uvjereni da se radi o drevnom rimskom goniču koji je vjerojatno već odavno izumro. & Ldquo Međutim, kad su ugledali & ldquothe psa s mozaika & ldquo u kući jednog afričkog poglavara, ovaj vrijedni hrt postao je predmet njihovih snova.

Prijatelji koje je veleposlanik osvojio u Maliju učinili su sve što je bilo u njihovoj moći kako bi po povratku u Jugoslaviju dr. Pečar mogao uzeti i dva afrička goniča. Doktor Pečar & ndash dok je bio ambasador u Mali & ndash postao je ugledan i izvrstan lovac, koji je stekao ime & ldquoVeliki afrički lovac & ldquo, a kako bi priznao svoja lovačka postignuća, dobio je Gao. Bio je to službeni dar vlade, a doista je bio izniman pas. Problemi su nastali kada je liječnik Pečar htio nabaviti i kuju kako bi mogao uzgajati te prekrasne pse. Budući da se takvi psi ne mogu niti kupiti niti izvoziti iz zemlje, obratio se lokalnom plemiću, spremnom dati ili učiniti bilo što zauzvrat. Imao je sreće. Pleme Touarega koje uzgaja takve pse, pristalo je dati kuju liječniku Pečaru, međutim on je, pak, morao ubiti i predati plemenu bika slona & vođu stada. Doktor Pečar pristao je ispuniti tako težak zadatak, uspješno ga obavivši. Predao je slona, ​​vođu stada, poglavaru Touaregova, a on je zauzvrat dobio kuju Sloughi. Međutim, to je bila jadna sitnica, koju je trebalo spustiti. Touaregovi izbacuju sve kuje iz legla, osim jedne koja se čuva za uzgoj. Doktor Pečar morao je uložiti mnogo truda i ljubavi kako bi siromašna pothranjena mala životinja preživjela u godinama koje dolaze, ova kuja postala je brana nekoliko prekrasnih potomaka. U vrijeme kada je gospodin Pečar pokušavao sebi pronaći Sloughi kuju, proveo je neko vrijeme među Touaregovima i naučio je mnogo o uzgoju ovih pasa. Rekao mi je to prije odlaska da preuzme novi ured u Gani, prepuštajući brigu o svojim psima u moje ruke.

Gospođa Vesna Sekalec i njezin Laca

Sloughi uzgaja pleme Touareg, saharsko nomadsko pleme. Touareg ne koristi ni vatreno oružje ni koplje, čak ni luk i strijelu ne koriste za lov koji ne koriste, već uzdužni hrčak i nož. Kako love? Tijekom prve godine hrane svoje mlade pse mlijekom, nikada ne hrane meso divljači. Također kasnije, kad psi malo odrastu, vole piti mlijeko osim trenutne hrane, potrebno im je davati mlijeko do kraja života. Sa više od tri mjeseca štene se uvodi u lov, počevši od lova na štakore, a kasnije i na zečeve. Kad Sloughi odraste, uzima se za lov na gazele. Lovac je na konju gonič sjedi pred njim na sedlu. Muškarac u jednoj ruci drži uzde, a u drugoj ogrlicu za pse & rsquos. Kad se potjera ubrza, pas skoči s konja kako bi nastavio lov divljom brzinom. Potjera se nastavlja, ponekad se prijeđu kilometri, potrebno je pet ili šest sati da gonič uhvati svoj plijen. Za Sloughije je tipično da ne ubijaju divljač, već da im grizu tetive nogu kako bi životinja ostala živa dok je lovac ne pronađe, inače bi meso mrtve divljači nestalo na afričkom suncu.

Touareg slobodno putuje afričkim zemljama čiji se teritorij proteže do pustinje Sahare. Izuzetno cijene svoje pse jer su im jedino oružje za lov, ali ih i jako vole, smatrajući ih članovima obitelji. Samo najboljem prijatelju se može pokloniti hrt. Bogatstvo pripadnika plemena se, između ostalog, mjeri brojem Sloughija koji spavaju pod njihovim krovovima.

Laca na izložbi CACIB u Brnu, Čehoslovačka, 1973. godine

O psima iz Malija malo se pisalo i malo se zna. Neki ih smatraju najčišćom pasminom, jer Touaregi koji ih uzgajaju ne dopuštaju da se njihovi psi izvoze niti križaju. Iz legla drže samo mužjake. Ženke se odstranjuju i ostaju samo one koje će se čuvati za uzgoj. Osim toga, biraju štence. Sloughi bez bijelih oznaka nije dobar samo su ostali psi koji imaju bijele mrlje na šapama, vrhu repa i prsima. Osim toga, psi moraju imati crne nokte i dobru pigmentaciju, te obaveznih pet bradavica na glavi. To mi je jednom objasnio doktor Pečar, pitajući za čudne izrasline na glavi moje Lace. Izbrojao je pet bradavica i zadovoljno mi je rekao da je Laca u skladu s Touaregovim standardom.

Ovo je priča o tome kako su Gao i Lara prije četiri godine stigli u Jugoslaviju, gdje su ostavili svoje potomstvo. Danas u našoj zemlji postoji 14 Sloughija. Boja im je u rasponu od pijeska do crvene, s bijelim oznakama ili bez njih, s obveznim crnim noktima i velikim crnim očima s crnim obrubima, tako da izgledaju poput žene napravljene za večernju šetnju.

Međutim, u mojoj zemlji ne mogu loviti. Na europskim lovačkim terenima, prilično smanjeni u usporedbi s velikim afričkim područjima, ti psi ne bi bili lovci i hitna pomoć, već bi i sami postali neovisni lovci. Međutim, oni mogu donijeti ljepotu i radost onima koji će se u njih zaljubiti. Za osobu koju ne želi ometati u radu čestim bučnim izrazima naklonosti psa, Sloughi će biti idealan suputnik. Njegov izraz ljubavi ograničen je samo na trenutke kada vam pas stavi usku glavu na krilo, promatrajući vas svojim velikim očima. Njegovo ljupko kretanje gazele i hod, različiti od hoda ostalih hrtova, oduzet će vam dah. Možda ćemo jednog dana vidjeti ove pse na trkaćim stazama, jer Sloughi može trčati do 70 km na sat, a lako može uloviti laganu gazelu. & Ldquo

1975. prvi Azawakhsi došli su u tadašnju Čehoslovačku. To su bila četiri psa iz uzgajivačnice gospođe Sekalec & acutes, a ona ih je osobno dovela jednom od budućih vlasnika, gospođi Jindri Marečková iz Počáplyja kod Pardubica. Kuja Assumi Harris Al Sahra (postavlja se pitanje tko je bio pravi otac Laca & acutes legla, je li pravi Sloughi El Basal Ben Burd von Klein Vossenburg, ili Lord Lody, brat brane) držala je gospođa Marečková ( Z Počápelské stráně uzgajivačnica) kuja Balhara Harris Al Sahra (Toro od Menake x Tibi od Menake, brat x sestrinski križ) uzela je gospođa Hana Petrusová ( Del Monte uzgajivačnica) druga dva Azawakhsa, braća i sestre gore navedenih pasa, mužjak Al Aden i kuja Baleira, nisu dugo ostali sa svojim novim vlasnicima, i na kraju su se preselili kod gospođe Petrusová. Psi iz & bdquo -aA & ldquo Harris al Sahra legla (izvozi se u Čehoslovačku, Poljsku i Švicarsku), a iz & bdquoB & ldquo Harris al Sahra stelja (izvezena u Čehoslovačku i Njemačku Federativnu Republiku) postala je i uzgajalište za sada već legendarne uzgajivačnice u Švicarskoj (Al Hara & acutes, temeljna žena bila Al Hara Harris al Sahra prvo leglo rođeno je 1978.) i u Njemačkoj Federativnoj Republici (Aulad al Sahra, temeljna žena bila Begum Harris al Sahra, prvo leglo & ldquoS & ldquo rođeno je 1978.), gdje su prva legla, kao i u Čehoslovačkoj, potjecala iz čiste jugoslavenske loze.

Gospodin Karel Štěpánský objavio je članak & ldquoSloughi& ldquo u čehoslovačkom kinološkom časopisu Pes přítel člověka, broj XI/1977. Autor je također objavio izvadak iz pisma gospođe Marečková. Gospođa Marečková & oštre riječi svjedočanstvo su prvih utisaka koje je ova pasmina, nepoznata u Europi, ostavila na vlasnike pasa koji su se prije navikli na kulturne pasmine i njihov karakter:

&ldquoI met Mrs. Vesna Sekalec from Zagreb,Yugoslavia two years ago in the dog races in Hungary. She admired my Borsoi male Ghazi Arslan z Neuštejna, and she told me about an unknown sighthound similar to the Greyhound, which is, however, faster and which moves like a gazelle. And she showed me her beautiful bitch Lina. I was fascinated by that noble dog, by its elegance and gracefulness of its silhouette. When I learnt that she was a descendant of a dog caught in the wilderness, my wonderment was endless and I could also understand the shyness and sensitivity of the bitch. Since that moment, I had dreamt my dream &ndash to have also a hound like that! Last year, my wish came true - Vesna Sekalec gave me a bitch as a gift. Her name is Assumi Harris al Sahra. She has been living happily in our home together with my Borsois, Collies and Whippets. She playfully wrestles with the Borsois, and many times, she wins her puppy battle. The lively little pup makes me immensely happy day by day, I follow its development and I record carefully all knowledge, specialities and differences of this breed.

This year, Vesna Sekalec has been invited by the Yugoslavian ambassador in the Republic of Mali to participate in a hunt, during which she plans to select two first-class wild specimens that would become a foundation of a new bloodline in Yugoslavia. She expects that during the hunt, wild dogs will join two already civilised dogs of the ambassador, and if this is the case, it may be possible to catch them.&ldquo

In 1977, Mrs. Sekalec visited the then Upper Volta (today&rsquos Burkina Faso) and brought to Mrs. Marečková an adult male Darkoye Sidi in order to enlarge the reduced genepool. Darkoye had a complete four-generation pedigree, however it was completely made up. Such a pedigree, it seems, is not the only inaccuracy in the stud books of those times. The pedigree of the first litter of Mrs. Sekalec,&ldquoA&ldquo Harris al Sahra, stated that the sire of the litter was a pure Sloughi, El Basal Ben Burd von Klein Vossenburg. Mrs. Sekalec was trying to find an unrelated male for her Laca, and chose that Sloughi champion. However, from various independent sources and contemporary breeders I have heard a different story, which nowadays can be neither confirmed nor denied (maybe only via genetic testing). The story has it that the Sloughi male did not mate Laca, and Mrs. Sekalec opted for an alternative solution &ndash she paid a visit to Laca´s littermate Lord Lody. Lord Lody is also indicated as sire in the Azawakh pedigree database. That litter was the first one in the Harris al Sahra kennel, but in the pedigree, the originally planned sire was inscribed.

Maybe it is worth clarifying some of the above statements which may sound a bit amusing today, but at the beginning of the seventieth such information was quite exotic. I am referring to information concerning the &ldquofive warts&ldquo on the head of the Azawakh, which still may be found in some books on sighthounds, affirming it is true. Such Azawakh &ldquowarts&ldquo are, in fact, &ldquotubercles&ldquo from which whiskers grow, two on each cheek, which means four, and the fifth one is located approximately in the centre of the lower jaw. On the long narrow head of the Azawakh grown with extremely short coat, such tubercles are just easier to see as compared to breeds with a longer coat. By no means these are any Azawakh specialty, this is a common feature of the canids in general.

The usage of the word &ldquocatching&ldquo may be also misleading when talking about the Azawakh in Africa, as it may be understood as an implication of the fact that the Azawakh lived as a wild non-domesticated animal in the African wilderness, and if a man wished to have one, he had to catch it. This undoubtfully sounds very interesting and it surely added up to the exotic perception of the Azawakh in the past, however, the reality is not that picturesque. It is true that the Azawakh is a less-domesticated breed, however it lives with its owners and it takes part in their every-day life.

The advertisement of the first two litters of the Azawakh in the Del Monte kennel , November 1977

Already in 1977, three litters were registered in the then Czechoslo vakia. The first two ones were born in the Del Monte kennel (19th September 1977 A &ndash del Monte, 3 males, 2 females, parents Al Aden Harris al Sahra x Balhara Harris al Sahra 25th September 1977 B-del Monte, 2 females, parents Al Aden Harris al Sahra x Baleira Harris al Sahra). At the end of the same year, the &ldquoA&ldquo litter was born in the z Počápelské stráně kennel (5 males, 2 females, parents Darkoye Sidi x Assumi Harris al Sahra). The Czech Republic therefore belongs among the countries with the longest tradition of the breeding of the Azawakh outside Africa.

Young dogs from the first Czech litters in their first racing training, November 1978

The Azawakh breeding had a good start in Czechoslovakia, but it almost ended at the same time. It was clearly understood that the dogs of the Yugoslavian line were not Sloughis and that they belonged to an independent breed, but officially, there was only one standard for both breeds. Contrary to clubs in Germany, Switzerland and France, where breeders did not have to overcome such obstacles, the then Czechoslovak Sighthound Club decided to proceed in a very strict manner, forbidding to breed forward from the dogs of the del Monte i z Počápelské stráně kennels. Such dogs really were not up to the FCI standard, their morphology was different and they had white markings, which are considered an excluding fault in the Sloughi. Azawakh fanciers had to face difficult times full of uncertainties, and some of the new Azawakh owners and admirers succumbed to the pressure and bullying by the Club, losing their interest in the breed.

Darkoye Sidi (left) with his offspring and Assumi Harris Al Sahra (right), the Z počapelské stráně kennel, 1978

Already in 1978, Mrs. A. Stuchlá published an article The Azawakh Sighthound in the cynological magazine Pes přítel člověka. That was probably for the first time when somebody expressed an opinion that the current situation was damaging the breeding of a new breed in Czechoslovakia. The article was published one year after the birth of the first litters, and one year after the publishing of the article of Mr. Štěpánský, who presented the Azawakh as Sloughi then. Mrs. Stuchlá mentioned the fact that the first discussions on similarities and differences between the Sloughi and the Azawakh had started already in 1972. Her article, among others, states the following:

R´Eheouel, a five-year old male picture shows open angulation and short straight back , A. Stuchlá, 1978

&ldquoThe issue of differences between the Azawakh and the Sloughi has been addressed also by the UICL (the international organisation of sighthound breeders) and by the Commission for Sighthounds of the FCI since 1972. Such organisations have come to a conclusion that the crossing of these two breeds is undesirable, and they recommended a standard of the Azawakh be created soon. In 1973, the standard for the Sloughi was approved under the number 188c, and at present, the FCI Standard Commission has been already submitted the Azawakh standard for approval.

Comparison of diferences between the Azawakh (left) and the Sloughi, A. Stuchlá, 1978

However, both breeds are judged together in the majority of shows, which, of course, has a negative impact on the Azawakh. Only in France both breeds are judged separately. Also in the German Federative Republic, dogs imported from France and denominated as Azawakh in their pedigrees are judged separately. In the majority of the cases, the specimens of this breed are denominated incorrectly as Sloughis in their pedigrees, which is a common situation in whole Europe. In order to be able to keep the Azawakh alive as a breed, it is paramount to judge these two breeds separately in shows, as judging according to the Sloughi standard endangers the very existence of the Azawakh (almost all the specimen are rejected as non-typical when judged according to the Sloughi standard). Such a problem affects deeply also the breeding in Czechoslovakia.

"Dogs of Mrs. Marečková, the Z Počapelské stráně kennel Daroye Sidi on the left - the picture shows the size of the ears and shape of the head. Such features, together with the colour, are a perfect evidence of the fact that the dogs belong to the Azawakh breed." Author: A. Stuchlá, 1978

Darkoye Sidi, a male imported by professor Sekalec from Upper Volta, has not been given the breeding permission. The male has been living with the breeder J. Marečková from Počáply-Sezemice. He is a typical representative of the breed to which he belongs &ndash the Azawakh Sighthound. The breeding permission was not granted to this male due to white markings on his legs and due to some morphological characteristics which are not in compliance with the Sloughi standard according to which this male was evaluated. This dog naturally cannot conform to the Sloughi standard, because he is not a Sloughi, not even from the point of view of the place of its origin (Upper Volta is located south of the Sahara desert) and morphology this male is a typical Azawakh, as well as the other specimens of the breed in Czechoslovakia, considered Sloughis until now. The fact that the FCI still has not issued the Azawakh standard makes the situation even worse. Only France has issued a standard for this breed so far.&ldquo

Movement of the Azawakh. Toboro, female, 18 months old

The Azawakh trotting. Ouahed, male, 10 months (Aikar x Toboro)

An Azawakh in its homeland. Adiknaz, an 18-month old male.

The uncertain situation surrounding the Azawakh prolonged until 1981, when the FCI finally recognised the Azawakh and a standard for the breed was issued. The standard had been officially recognised from 3 rd July 1980 and it entered in force on 1 st January 1981. In the first standard, the breed was denominated &ldquoSloughi Azawakh&ldquo however, such a name was changed shortly after that. North Africa was given as the place of the origin of the breed without any detailed specification of any country or region, and France became the patronage country. So finally, as of 1 st January 1981, the existence of this ancient, centuries old breed was officially recognised by the FCI, and the standard entered into force.

Even before the standard became officially valid, when it was already known that the breed would be recognised, judging of breeding stock was organised on 1st November 1980 in the city of Kolín, Czechoslovakia. All the Azawakhs, even those that had been registered as breeding stock as Sloughis, had to attend. No new pedigrees were issued for such dogs in their pedigrees, a simple correction was made &ndash the word &ldquoSloughi&ldquo was crossed out and replaced with the word &ldquoAzawakh&ldquo. Dogs also did not lose their show titles awarded to them when they were judged as Sloughis, obtaining therefore national or international championships on the basis of titles awarded in fact to two different breeds according to two different standards.

The pedigree of the male Amon z Počapelské stráně, Azawakh magazine, 4/2005, author of the original picture O. Kupka

Since the beginning of the eighties it seemed that nothing would impede the breeding of the Azawakh and that a bright future awaited the breed. However, both historical and contemporary events are an evidence of the fact that nothing is as easy as it may seem.

The very first standard, in terms of the definition of the permitted colours, mentioned also the brindle colour, which, however, was forbidden after a short time, and it was permitted again as late as in 1994. The standard has been amended several times in the course of the years, but unfortunately not in such a range so as to reflect the African reality of the breed in general. Just in the last approximately twelve years, there have been four recommendations issued by SLAG, the French patronage club, concerning the breeding and judging of the Azawakh. Such recommendations, unfortunately, have been far from being beneficial for the breed, but they have also been in absolute contradiction one with another or in contradiction with the general laws of genetics and genetics of small populations.

Approximately at the end of the nineties, it was required by the show judges that the Azawakh had rather large symmetric white markings, reaching up to the half of the front legs or higher. After that, there was a concern about the genetic variability of the breed &ndash fully justified &ndash based on the fact that the genepool of the Azawakh in Europe was so small that it would endanger a healthy development of the breed. For such a reason, a recommendation was issued that the genepool should be enlarged, and in order to achieve that, the Sloughi should be bred to the Azawakh. In response, a strong protest movement arose of fanciers and breeders of both breeds and clubs from all parts of the world signed petitions against such a recommendation, argumenting that in Africa, there was still a rather rich quality genepool of the breed which could be used to extend the reduced European one. However, such arguments were not even considered by the SLAG representatives, and until now, nobody has officially cancelled such a recommendation. Finally, common sense won over the establishment and the breeders were wise enough not to abide by such a decision. However, some years after that, another recommendation was issued to penalise Azawakhs with large white markings in shows, and ideal markings became suddenly only traits of white on fingers and a little white spot on the chest. A protest movement arose again, and Azawakh fanciers and breeders organised a signature campaign against such a requirement. Their arguments that such an approach would reduce the small genepool even more, were not considered sufficiently important by the same cynological representatives who, several years before, had suggested to cross Sloughis to Azawakhs in order to protect the breed from extinction. Some time passed and it was recommended, more or less silently, that dogs with white markings should not be necessarily punished to such an extreme. Breeding of not just a rare, but any breed in general, under such conditions is a rather difficult task indeed.

So we, lovers and admirers of the Azawakh, hope a day will come when personal ambitions and interests and quest for show fame will be overcome by a real love for dogs, common sense, scientific approach and genetics. Let&rsquos hope that the graceful hound from the ancient mosaic will stay with us, a precious jewel shining from far-away times and culture, adorning our lives with the beauty of its body and soul.

Dana Kupková Oldřich Kupka, The 30th Anniversary of Azawakh Breeding in the Czech Republic, The Azawakh magazine, 4/2005


'Beware of the Dog': Secrets of Ancient Pompeii Mosaic Laid Bare by Archaeologist

As archaeologist Bethany Hughes explained, the mosaic in question served as the inspiration for "millions of modern doormats".

The ancient Roman city of Pompeii, which was buried under layers of volcanic ash during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius nearly two thousand years ago, yielded a number of interesting archaeological discoveries that offer insights into the lives and customs of citizens of that long-gone empire.

According to the Daily Express, Bethany Hughes, archaeologist and presenter of the Channel 5 series "Secrets of Pompeii's Greatest Treasures", highlighted one particular find – a floor mosaic depicting a dog and bearing a warning that says "Cave Canem" which means "beware of the dog" in Latin.

Describing the mosaic as "one of the most celebrated, imitated, replicated artworks in the whole world", and noting how it inspired "millions of modern doormats", she confessed that she likes it for a number of reasons, "partly because of the story it tells and partly because of the skill of its making".

Beware of the Dog! @bettanyhughes reveals the #Roman roots of guard #dogs in Secrets of Pompeii's Greatest Treasures. This Thursday at 9pm on @channel5_tv! #mansbestfriend #Pompeii #mosaic pic.twitter.com/KaDtoBhbgn

— SandStone Global Productions (@SandstoneGlobal) June 2, 2020

She added that Pompeii was "a place where there were many crimes and often people didn’t go out at night".

And as it turns out, the analysis of the remains of the dogs that got trapped in the city during the eruption allowed researchers to deduce the “identity of the canine guards” by comparing their results to the mosaics, Hughes remarked.

All comments

In reply to (Show commentHide comment)
Preporučeno
Multimedia

U trendu

Hello, !

Hello, !

Hello, !

The fact of registration and authorization of users on Sputnik websites via users’ account or accounts on social networks indicates acceptance of these rules.

Users are obliged abide by national and international laws. Users are obliged to speak respectfully to the other participants in the discussion, readers and individuals referenced in the posts.

The websites’ administration has the right to delete comments made in languages ​​other than the language of the majority of the websites’ content.

In all language versions of the sputniknews.com websites any comments posted can be edited.

A user comment will be deleted if it:

  • does not correspond with the subject of the post
  • promotes hatred and discrimination on racial, ethnic, sexual, religious or social basis or violates the rights of minorities
  • violates the rights of minors, causing them harm in any form, including moral damage
  • contains ideas of extremist nature or calls for other illegal activities
  • contains insults, threats to other users, individuals or specific organizations, denigrates dignity or undermines business reputations
  • contains insults or messages expressing disrespect to Sputnik
  • violates privacy, distributes personal data of third parties without their consent or violates privacy of correspondence
  • describes or references scenes of violence, cruelty to animals
  • contains information about methods of suicide, incites to commit suicide
  • pursues commercial objectives, contains improper advertising, unlawful political advertisement or links to other online resources containing such information
  • promotes products or services of third parties without proper authorization
  • contains offensive language or profanity and its derivatives, as well as hints of the use of lexical items falling within this definition
  • contains spam, advertises spamming, mass mailing services and promotes get-rich-quick schemes
  • promotes the use of narcotic / psychotropic substances, provides information on their production and use
  • contains links to viruses and malicious software
  • is part of an organized action involving large volumes of comments with identical or similar content ("flash mob")
  • “floods” the discussion thread with a large number of incoherent or irrelevant messages
  • violates etiquette, exhibiting any form of aggressive, humiliating or abusive behavior ("trolling")
  • doesn’t follow standard rules of the English language, for example, is typed fully or mostly in capital letters or isn’t broken down into sentences.

The administration has the right to block a user’s access to the page or delete a user’s account without notice if the user is in violation of these rules or if behavior indicating said violation is detected.

Users can initiate the recovery of their account / unlock access by contacting the moderators at [email protected]

  • Subject - the restoration of account / unlock access
  • User ID
  • An explanation of the actions which were in violation of the rules above and resulted in the lock.

If the moderators deem it possible to restore the account / unlock access, it will be done.

In the case of repeated violations of the rules above resulting in a second block of a user’s account, access cannot be restored.


6. Head Of A Dog By Edvard Munch

Edvard Munch was another famous painter at the turn of the century. He was a Norwegian artist whose expressionist paintings depicted the emotional and mental anguish he suffered throughout his life. His most famous painting, The Scream, resides in Oslo, Norway

During Munch’s later years, he started to pull away from society, living in solitude with only his dogs to accompany him. He was even known to bring his dogs to the local cinema, and if they barked, he would interpret it as a sign that the film was bad, leaving the theater with them.

With such a strong love of his canine best friends, it’s no wonder he chose a pooch as the subject of this famous painting.

What do you think of these famous dog paintings throughout history? Do you have a favorite famous dog paintings that we missed? Javite nam u komentarima ispod!


When Did Rover Come On Over?

For years, getting researchers to pinpoint the origin of man’s best friend was like walking into a room full of dog owners and asking, “Who’s a good boy?” Everyone would promote, with utmost confidence, their own pet theory.

Recent genetic studies have placed ground zero for dog domestication in Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, South Asia or Southeast Asia. And they date dog origins anywhere between 10,000 and 38,000 years ago.

Some of these contradictory results arise from dogs’ complex history with humans and other canids. Once domesticated, dogs proved valuable in myriad ways: guards, hunters, shepherds, pack animals, sled pullers.

“Dogs are motivatable to do the jobs humans want them to do, so people took them with them as they moved,” says Adam Boyko, a geneticist at Cornell University. “Cats, by comparison, are not motivatable, so people didn’t scatter them across the world. A single cat might jump on a ship and end up somewhere else, but you don’t have, say, trained war cats going into battle.”

As they traveled, dogs mingled with other populations of dogs but also with wolves, both ancestral and modern, creating a genetic potpourri. A 2015 study in Genome Research , for example, estimated that 25 percent of modern Eurasian wolf DNA actually comes from interbreeding with domesticated dogs.

Another confounding factor in earlier studies: Researchers sampled DNA from modern purebred dogs, which are the result of generations of artificial selection and hybridization by breeders, skewing the genetic timeline of when wolves and dogs parted ways.

But now, researchers are collecting broader modern-dog samples. Boyko, for example, co-authored a 2015 study that included samples from free-breeding dogs around the globe. These “village dogs” are more representative, genetically, of the species. Of the estimated 1 billion dogs in the world today, about 75 percent are free breeding.

At the same time, researchers have made advances in extracting and sequencing ancient DNA, allowing them to see the past rather than make a calculated guess based on modern material.

“Ten or 20 years ago, we looked at modern dogs and modern wolves, and that’s it,” says German geneticist Olaf Thalmann, currently at Poland’s Poznan University of Medical Sciences. “We have realized this is wrong. Now we’re going back to the cradle of domestication to look for answers there [because] the wolves we see today are not what gave rise to dogs.”

In June, Science published a paper that heralds the new direction of research. According to the study, dogs were domesticated not once but twice, on opposite ends of the Eurasian continent at least 15,000 years ago. Previous studies assumed that domestication was a difficult and thus rare event, occurring only once. But the new dual-origin theory found that an ancient European population was replaced by an eastern Asian population as the latter expanded across the continent. Every dog alive today is descended from ancient Asian roots.

In addition to collecting DNA from hundreds of modern wolves as well as mutts and purebred dogs, the dual-origin researchers extracted DNA from dozens of ancient dogs, including a particularly high-value sample from a 4,800-year-old animal unearthed in Newgrange, Ireland.

“The ancient [Newgrange] dog had ancestry not found in modern dogs or in modern wolves,” says Mietje Germonpré, who was not part of the dual-origin team. The Belgian paleontologist has studied the remains of other older canids in Eurasia and believes some of them were early dogs — a controversial theory, but one this new research suggests may be correct.

“It’s the first hint toward what’s out there,” says Thalmann, who also wasn’t involved in the research. “It’s a wake-up call. The theory about multiple origins and timing was out there for some time, but this is the first evidence for it genetically.”


Dog Mosaic - History

For thousands of years, rabies has terrified civilizations ever since it became obvious that the bite of a rabid animal insured an inevitably horrible death. The origin of the word rabies is either from the Sanskrit "rabhas" (to do violence) or the Latin "rabere" (to rage). The ancient Greeks called rabies "lyssa" (violence). Today, the virus causing rabies is classified in the genus Lyssa Virus".

In India, 3000 B.C., the god of death was attended by a dog as the emissary of death. In modern day India, rabid dogs still cause the death of 20,000 people each year. The first written record of rabies causing death in dogs and humans is found in the Mosaic Esmuna Code of Babylon in 2300 B.C. where Babylonians had to pay a fine if their dog transmitted rabies to another person.

In the first century A.D., the Roman scholar Celsus correctly suggested that rabies was transmitted by the saliva of the biting animal. He incorrectly suggested a cure for rabies by holding the victim under water. Those that didn't drown died of rabies. Other barbaric cures for rabies included burning the wounds with a hot poker and a "hair-of-the-dog".Homeopathic medicine invokes the use of "similars", i.e. like cures like. Hairs of the rabid dog were laid on the wound or ingested by the patient. While a hair-of-the-dog may cure a hangover, it did nothing to cure rabies.

The most interesting cure for rabies involved the use of madstones in 18 th century America. Madstones are calcified hairballs found in the stomachs of ruminants such as cows, goats and deer. They were thought to have curative powers by drawing the madness out of the bite wound. Madstones were highly prized as more valuable than rubies and were passed down through generations as "family jewels". In 1805, a madstone sold for $2000 in Essex County, Virginia. Abraham Lincoln is reported to have transported his son, Robert, from Springfield, Illinois to Terre Haute, Indiana for madstone treatment in 1849 after being bitten by a rabid dog. Robert survived.

That same year, after proposing to his childhood sweetheart, Edgar Allen Poe left Richmond, Virginia on a train bound for New York City. Six days later he was mysteriously found lying in the street outside Ryan's Saloon in Baltimore, Maryland. It was assumed this lifelong alcoholic was suffering delirium tremons but when offered alcohol he refused it and when offered water he had great difficulty swallowing it. Poe's physician, Dr. Joseph Moran, writes that Poe slipped in and out of a coma, had hallucinations and alternated between periods of extreme aggression and periods of perfect lucidity. He finally slipped into a coma and died four days later. These are the classic symptoms of rabies. Poe's body showed no sign of bite wounds but fewer than one third of human rabies victims show evidence of bite wounds.

The first real treatment for rabies came in the 1880's. A French chemistry teacher named Louis Pasteur was dabbling with chicken cholera when he noticed that virulent cultures exposed to the elements no longer caused disease. He also noted that chickens given this weakened or "attenuated strain" were immune to inoculation with fresh, virulent cultures. Pasteur next tried an attenuated vaccine against anthrax in cattle. Upalilo je! He then turned his attention to rabies, the scourge of the world. His initial animal studies were very promising, but Pasteur wanted more time to purify his attenuated vaccine before trying it on sam.

On July 6, 1885, a 9 year old boy named Joseph Meister was mauled by a rabid dog. A local doctor treated the wounds and told the family that the only person who could save Joseph was Louis Pasteur. After much pleading, Pasteur agreed only after consulting with a couple of real doctors who said Joseph was a "dead boy walking". Joseph received 13 inoculations in 11 days and made a complete recovery. The word leaked out and patients came streaming in the world over. At the time of Pasteur's death 9 years later, over 20,000 people had been given his post-exposure prophylactic vaccine.

Today in the U.S. many (but not all) of our pets are vaccinated against rabies. We all remember Cujo and Old Yeller, but cats now outrank dogs in the number of domestic rabies cases. Many people still don't think cats need rabies vaccinations. Wild animal rabies mostly involves raccoons, skunks, foxes and bats with bats being the most dangerous since rabid bats rarely look sick and they can sneak in through very narrow spaces day and night to expose us and our pets.

I don't have the space to tell all the horror tales I've heard. I'll just share two: 1) A rabid bat flew down a chimney and bit the unvaccinated indoor housecat. The cat bit the 12 year old girl in the house. The bat, the cat and the girl all died. 2) A friend called me hysterically one Sunday. A raccoon (later proved rabid) broke through her screen door and attacked her four indoor cats, none of whom had ever had a rabies vaccine. All four of her cats had to be destroyed. Suffice it to say that many have died, been destroyed or undergone post-exposure vaccination needlessly.

​​​​​​​Louis Pasteur was my childhood hero. He guided me into a career in microbiology and veterinary medicine. Don't let all his hard work go to waste. Rabies is a preventable disease. Vaccinate your pets! I've had the rabies vaccination 3 times and it doesn't hurt. Trust me, I'm a doctor.


Gledaj video: Muzika Za Pse 8 Sati Muzika Koja Smiruje, Opušta I Pomaže Psu Da Zaspe (Veljača 2023).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos